Document Detail

The impact of societal changes on patterns of urolithiasis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19940772     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to track changes in prevalence and composition of stone disease as a result of lifestyle changes over the past century. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome have resulted in increasing rates of nephrolithiasis among women, decreasing the male-to-female ratio from 1.3: 1 to 1.7: 1. Urine composition results have revealed a decrease in urinary pH (<5.5) and an increase in urinary uric acid supersaturation. This has resulted in increased rates of uric acid stones. Modern bariatric surgeries have further increased the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. Offending agents, intentionally or unintentionally added to food or drug products, have also led to the appearance of previously unrecognized stone types, that is, melamine and indinavir calculi. SUMMARY: Societal changes have had a tremendous impact on stone prevalence and composition. Prompt healthier lifestyle education as well as tighter quality control in the Food and Drug Industry is paramount to reducing nephrolithiasis rates and its complications.
Dorit E Zilberman; Daniel Yong; David M Albala
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in urology     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1473-6586     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr Opin Urol     Publication Date:  2010 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-02-03     Completed Date:  2010-03-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9200621     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Urol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  148-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Urologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Diabetes Complications / complications
Life Style*
Nephrolithiasis / etiology
Obesity / complications
Urolithiasis / epidemiology*,  etiology,  metabolism

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