Document Detail

The impact of acepromazine on the efficacy of crystalloid, dextran or ephedrine treatment in hypotensive dogs under isoflurane anesthesia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23035903     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Objective  To determine the impact of acepromazine on the cardiovascular responses to three treatments for hypotension in dogs during deep isoflurane anesthesia. Study design  Prospective blinded randomized cross-over experimental design. Animals  Six adult (2.5 ± 0.5 year old) healthy mixed breed dogs (24.2 ± 7.6 kg). Methods  Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4-6 mg kg(-1) , IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Each dog received six treatments separated by at least 5 days. Once instrumented, dogs randomly received acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) ) (Ace) or saline (equal volume) (Sal) IV and end-tidal isoflurane (E'Iso) was adjusted to achieve hypotension, defined as a mean blood pressure between 45 and 50 mmHg. Dogs randomly received dextran (D) (7 mL kg(-1) ) or lactated Ringer's (LR) (20 mL kg(-1) ) over 14 minutes, or ephedrine (Eph) (0.1 mg kg(-1) followed by 10 μg kg(-1)  minute(-1) ) throughout the study. Measurements were taken at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Data were analyzed with a Latin Square in two factors (Ace/Sal and treatment) for repeated measures, with further comparisons if appropriate (p < 0.05). Results  E'Iso producing hypotension was significantly less following Ace (2.07 ± 0.23%) than Sal (2.43 ± 0.23%). No improvement in cardiac output (CO) was observed with D or LR. LR initially intensified hypotension with a significant reduction in SVR, while D caused a minor improvement in ABP. Eph produced a significant increase in ABP, CO, hemoglobin, oxygen content and delivery. Pre-treatment with Ace minimized ABP improvements with all treatments. Conclusions and clinical relevance  Acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV) enhanced the hypotensive effect of isoflurane, although it maintained CO. Administration of LR significantly worsens ABP initially by further vasodilation. D caused minimal improvement in ABP. At the infusion studied, Eph effectively countered the cardiovascular depression produced by deep isoflurane anesthesia, but extremes in ABP associated with initial vasoconstriction prevent our recommendation at this dose.
Melissa D Sinclair; Doris H Dyson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  39     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-05     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  563-73     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
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