Document Detail


The identification of thresholds of acceptability and danger: the chemical presence route.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9079200     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
European Union chemical legislation requires the calculation of local and regional Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) for the assessment of the exposure of new and existing chemicals to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Current methods use local models for air, water and soil to estimate chemical concentrations close to the source and a generic multimedia 'unit world' approach to estimate regional PECs. These models assume generic environmental scenarios representing typical situations in European countries and do not account for the spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in ecosystem characteristics, soil properties, river flow rates, chemical emissions, etc. The environmental and ecological complexity can best be represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). By coupling a GIS with a fate simulation model the concentrations of substances in a specific environment are predicted more realistically. The GREAT-ER project (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) was launched to refine regional and local exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals by applying real, spatial-referenced datasets instead of generic or average values. A modular approach was developed consisting of a hydrological model and a waste-flow, river quality and fate model which are linked to a regional GIS-database. For the calibration and validation in two European study areas representative detergent chemicals (LAS, boron) are used. In a parallel study, high-volume intermediates discharged into the river Rhine are simulated.
Authors:
M Matthies; F Koormann; G Boeije; T C Feijtel
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of toxicology. Supplement. = Archiv für Toxikologie. Supplement     Volume:  19     ISSN:  0171-9750     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Toxicol. Suppl.     Publication Date:  1997  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-06-12     Completed Date:  1997-06-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7802567     Medline TA:  Arch Toxicol Suppl     Country:  GERMANY    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  123-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
University of Osnabrück, Institute of Environmental Systems Research, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Alkanesulfonates / chemistry
Biodegradation, Environmental
Environmental Pollutants*
European Union
Fresh Water / chemistry*
Models, Chemical
Risk Assessment
Vinyl Chloride / chemistry
Water Pollutants
Water Supply
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Alkanesulfonates; 0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/Water Pollutants; 75-01-4/Vinyl Chloride

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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