|The human genome puzzle - the role of copy number variation in somatic mosaicism.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 21358987 Owner: NLM Status: PubMed-not-MEDLINE|
|The discovery of copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome opened new perspectives in the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the etiology of common diseases. Differently patterned instances of somatic mosaicism in CNV regions have been shown to be present in monozygotic twins and throughout different tissues within an individual. A single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human cell types led us to uncover mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. A unique study of immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year interval from the same two subjects shows that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and seem to occur only once, as levels of mosaicism remained stable. This finding has the potential to change our concept of dynamic human genome variation. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to understand better the etiology and physiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic variations.|
|Hasmik Mkrtchyan; Madeleine Gross; Sophie Hinreiner; Anna Polytiko; Marina Manvelyan; Kristin Mrasek; Nadezda Kosyakova; Elisabeth Ewers; Heike Nelle; Thomas Liehr; Samarth Bhatt; Karen Thoma; Erich Gebhart; Sylvia Wilhelm; Raimund Fahsold; Marianne Volleth; Anja Weise|
Related Documents :
|19554017 - Targeted depletion of polo-like kinase (plk) 1 through lentiviral shrna or a small-mole...
2492797 - Nephrogenic adenoma arising in urethral diverticula. a report of five cases.
12089457 - Structure, odd lines and topological entropy of disorder of amorphous silicon.
11870967 - Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland: case report.
15857147 - Antitumor effects of two novel naturally occurring terpene quinones isolated from the m...
6166007 - Generation of fibroblast-like cells from cloned epithelial mammary cells in vitro: a po...
|Type: Journal Article|
|Title: Current genomics Volume: 11 ISSN: 1875-5488 ISO Abbreviation: Curr. Genomics Publication Date: 2010 Sep|
|Created Date: 2011-03-01 Completed Date: 2011-07-14 Revised Date: 2013-05-29|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 100960527 Medline TA: Curr Genomics Country: Netherlands|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 426-31 Citation Subset: -|
|Jena University Hospital, Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Jena, Germany.|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Curr Genomics
Journal ID (publisher-id): CG
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
©2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Received Day: 19 Month: 4 Year: 2010
Revision Received Day: 1 Month: 5 Year: 2010
Accepted Day: 24 Month: 5 Year: 2010
Print publication date: Month: 9 Year: 2010
Volume: 11 Issue: 6
First Page: 426 Last Page: 431
PubMed Id: 21358987
Publisher Id: CG-11-426
|The Human Genome Puzzle – the Role of Copy Number Variation in Somatic Mosaicism|
1Jena University Hospital, Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Jena, Germany
2Department of Genetics and Cytology, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia
3National Center of ‘Mother and Child’, Minsk, Belarus
4Research Center of Maternal and Children Health Protection, Department of Medical-Genetic Service, Yerevan, Armenia
5Institute of Human Genetics, Erlangen, Germany
6Biomedical Center, Homburg, Germany
7Middle German Praxis Group, Dresden, Germany
8Institute of Human Genetics, Magdeburg, Germany
|*Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Kollegiengasse 10, D-07743 Jena, Germany; Tel: 0049-3641-935533; Fax: 0049-3641-935582; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
#Present address: German Cancer Research Centre, Division of Molecular Genetics, Heidelberg, Germany.
†Present address: Institute of Functional Genomics, Regensburg, Germany.
Many forms of human genome variations are known and described including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertion-deletion polymorphisms, variable numbers of repetitive sequences and genomic structural alterations. Recent developments in the genome-wide targeted technologies used to analyze structural variations have led to the identification of thousands of heritable copy number variations (CNV) occurring in both phenotypically normal and affected subjects . These are submicroscopic CNV in DNA segments ranging from kilobases (kb) to megabases (Mb) in size and include deletions, insertions and duplications. However, they do not include those variants that arise from the insertion/deletion of transposable elements alone. About 24% of all CNV are associated with segmental duplications suggesting that non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) has been frequently involved in the genesis of these CNV . Possibly, subsets of CNV not associated with segmental duplications may be formed or maintained by non-homology-based mutational mechanisms .
It is known that some CNV can influence gene expression and play a role in the etiology of common diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and heart conditions [4, 5]. Overall, 14.5% of genes in the OMIM morbid map overlap with CNV . Interestingly, genes highly enriched in CNV are relevant to molecular-environmental interactions and influence response to specific environmental signals such as sensory perception of olfactory and chemical stimuli [7-10]. In addition, genes associated with disease susceptibility were found in regions exhibiting CNV. As example, Gonzalez  has shown that there are significant interindividual and interpopulation differences in the copy number of a segmental duplication encompassing the gene encoding CCL3L1, a potent HIV-1-suppressive chemokine and ligand for the HIV coreceptor CCR5. The investigation of HIV-1-positive and -negative individuals from groups with different geographical origins and ancestries (e.g. Africans or Europeans) revealed that a low CCL3L1 copy number was a major determinant for enhanced HIV susceptibility . CNV have been also observed in other mammals such as mice  and chimpanzees .
Though about 6558 CNV are detailed in the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation/) it is supposed that a certain number of CNV remains to be identified. To date, only genome-wide technologies have been available to detect such CNV and only DNA extracted from a multitude of cells could be analyzed by those approaches such as SNP arrays, whole-genome tiling-path array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platform, BAC-based aCGH and ROMA (= representative oligonucleotide microarray analysis) Acgh [1, 4-6]. However the detection frequency of de novo CNV strongly depends on the cut off criteria, especially when the size of an aberration is small. In conclusion, the confirmation of CNV via alternative techniques is particularly challenging.
Recently, two single-cell-directed approaches were described as ‘parental-origin-determination fluorescence in situ hybridization’ (pod-FISH)  and ‘polymorphic deletion probe-based FISH’ (PDP-FISH) . These techniques require CNV-region-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC; pod-FISH) and fosmid clones (PDP-FISH) to visualize copy number polymorphisms on homologous chromosomes. Pod-FISH is available for 225 CNV, based on specific BAC clones of more than 150 kb in length and with variation frequencies in populations of over 10%. The selected polymorphic regions represent size variations, detectable as different signal intensities with pod-FISH . In contrast, PDP-FISH has been reported for three CNV loci using fosmid probes, which distinguish signal presence and absence rather than signal intensity differences .
For a long time it has been widely accepted that all cells in an individual are genetically identical, except for individuals with somatic mosaicism that causes disease, and for the rearrangements of the immunoglobulin and T-cell-receptor genes . In contrast, more and more data are available demonstrating genomic variation in different tissues for numerical chromosome aneuploidy contributing to mosaicism as a global mechanism for example in germ cells, placenta, human brain, skin, liver and blood [17-20]. However, recent studies indicate that somatic mosaicism affecting known CNV might be seen as a rule rather than an exception. It has been suggested that sequence variation involving CNV between two normal subjects is higher than that for single-nucleotide polymorphisms . The latter suggestions were confirmed as so-called putative de novo somatic CNV events in monozygotic (MZ) twins . It is expected that MZ twins are genetically identical and that phenotypic differences between twins are mainly due to environmental factors.
Bruder  has investigated whether MZ twins display differences in CNV. The study of 19 pairs of MZ twins using the 32K BAC array platform revealed evidence for large scale CNV among them and suggests that these variations may be common, notably in somatic development. It was shown that the applied array platform was able to discover somatic mosaicism in 10-20% of nucleated blood cells. In one individual of the studied MZ twins two deletions in 4p and 11q, encompassing ~85 and ~22Mb, respectively, were found. Consultation of medical records revealed that this subject was diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) prior to sampling of his blood in the course of the study . It remains to be assessed if the CNV were causative for the CLL.
In addition to the concordant SNP genotypes, including several CNV that were shared by both twins of a pair, also a few discordances in A and B allele frequencies were found, suggesting putative de novo somatic CNV events. For instance, a CNV, which covers ~1.6 Mb on chromosome 2 and extends from SNP rs2304429 to rs1662987, implying a deletion, was found in one twin but not in the other. Two other methods (high-resolution melting curve analysis and pyrosequencing) have confirmed the deletion and indicated that it was present in approximately 70–80% of blood cells. The structural variations discovered in MZ twins suggest that somatic mosaicism for CNVs is relatively common in normal human cells .
A recent study of different human tissues and organs from three subjects using a genome-wide tool (32K array) revealed the existence of somatic CNV mosaicism . At least six CNV, affecting a single organ or one or more tissues of the same subject were observed. Cortex of the brain, pons and cortex of the cerebellum were obtained from three individuals and RP11-197P23 located in 1p36.33 showed variation only in experiments using the pons vs cerebellum of subject 3. Thus, it was suggested that somatic mosaicism for CNV occur in a substantial fraction of human cells.
It has been shown that extensive de novo and recurrent CNV occur also in vitro in mouse embryonic stem cell lines derived from common parental lines, leading to mosaic animals containing variants of the zygote genome . Clones with major chromosomal changes could not be transmitted into the mouse germ line and typically exhibited trisomies or multiple deletions or duplications. Some clones had a few small (1 to 2 Mb) CNV that did not affect germ-line transmission. More than half of these CNV appear to have arisen independently because they were observed in subclones isolated from different parental ES cell lines.
Overall, somatic CNV mosaicism patterns have not yet been fully resolved, because all previous studies were performed with whole-genomic DNA extracted from a large number of cells, approaching one million per assay.
As mentioned above PDP-FISH  and pod-FISH  provided recently the possibility to assess CNV variations in situ. The efficient use of both approaches in the clinical assessment of chimerism in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the exclusion of maternal contamination in prenatal diagnosis, the detection of uniparental disomy of single chromosomes, the determination of the origin of aberrant chromosomes, the proof of paternity by chromosomes and following single chromosomes in generations, was suggested and demonstrated [14, 15]. It is to emphasize that, in contrast to genome-wide approaches by pod-FISH it is possible to detect small deletions or duplications with a resolution of 150 kb and less on single cell level. Thus, this is a powerful approach for the discovery of adequately sized somatic mosaicism within a population of cells derived from one individual.
We have found not only interindividual differences, as expected, but also intraindividual differences determining the signal intensities of polymorphic BAC probes. Thus, in a woman with Turner syndrome and the mosaic karyotype 45,X,der(7)t(Y;7)(p11.1~11.2;p22.3)/45,X, pod-FISH assessed the parental origin of the normal and derivative chromosomes 7 with two BACs (RP11-533E18 and RP11-45N9) of the 15 BACs tested . Uniparental disomy 7 was excluded for both cell lines and the result was confirmed by microsatellite analysis. The pod-FISH results for this individual revealed the presence of different clonal cell lines within one tissue with respect to the investigated CNV .
pod-FISH  and PDP-FISH  have also been applied to the analysis of cellular chimerism after bone-marrow transplantation in leukemia patients. To identify a low level of chimerism, it is necessary to find polymorphic regions containing CNV in 100% of the transplantation recipient and donor cells. Using pod-FISH this condition was fulfilled for BAC RP11-367L15, mapping to chromosome 19p13.2, in a male suffering from AML1–ETO-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). After bone-marrow (BM) transplantation from a female donor, the cellular chimerism in BM was determined in 60% donor vs 40% recipient cells using a centromeric probe for the X chromosome. Surprisingly, no signal intensity variation for RP11-367L15 was found in 55% of the donor cells. The remaining 45% of donor cells showed the identical pod-FISH signal pattern as those of the recipient cells (see Fig. 1).
Intraindividual differences detectable by pod-FISH turn out to be a common observation rather than an exception. To test whether different cell types have specific CNV patterns when studied at the single-cell level, we used chromosome-specific pod-FISH on metaphase spreads from 10 healthy individuals . Three cell types were studied using 5 BACs with expected high population frequencies within CNV regions: T lymphocytes prepared from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood; B-lymphocytes from Epstein–Barr-virus-immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) ; and fibroblasts from cultivated skin biopsy samples. In single cell types, we found cells with different and equal signal intensities for the same polymorphic BAC, varying between 0% and 95%, and random variations between all 10 individuals studied. Surprisingly, the variation ratio within the cells of one individual remained similar in all three cell types studied (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that somatic variation of CNV regions occurs in early embryogenesis . To investigate whether once acquired CNV variations ratio remain stable through the whole life or undergo changes, we applied pod-FISH for 36 CNV on metaphase spreads of LCL from two individuals (subjects 1 and 2) established with a time interval of 20 years . The age of the two probands was 25 and 30 years for the first sample, respectively. Cytogenetic analyses of all samples were performed using GTG banding and normal karyotypes were found [26, 27]. The experimental procedures performed on human tissue samples were approved by the Ethics Committee of Friedrich Schiller Jena University Hospital (internal code 1457-12/04). pod-FISH was done as previously reported ; the applied 36 BAC probes are listed in Fig. (2). Statistical analysis was performed using t-test (P=<0,01). As in previous studies also here we found two cell types with different signal intensity of the same BAC ranging from 0% to 100%. Interestingly, the variation ratio of BACs remained equal in LCL from different time points within a subject (Fig. 2) and varied between the two individuals studied .
The mechanisms underlying the establishment of CNV mosaicism and their transmission through ‘mitosis remain unclear. Single-cell-CNV-focused approaches might only uncover a tip of the iceberg in the recently reported background of extensive chromosomal instability in human cleavage-stage embryos . Several studies have predicted that some CNV and nonrecurring copy number variations in cancer cell lines, which are induced by aphidicolin or occur in some cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Smith-Magenis syndrome or Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease originate from nonhomologous end joining, fork stalling and template switching, or microhomology/microsatellite-induced replication mechanisms [29, 30]. Moreover, such evolutionarily and developmentally significant hotspots as fragile sites and aphidicolin-induced CNV might resemble human CNV .
Overall, the presence of somatic CNV mosaicism in different individuals has been confirmed by several studies: Here we approach the problem of CNV mosaicism in different cell types and tissues of the same organism in different cell types and tissues of the same organism at differentially stages. The stable variation ratios of CNV detectable by pod-FISH have been shown to differ between individuals but not within healthy individuals. We suggest that the somatic recombination of polymorphic regions might occur at least at a relatively early time point in embryogenesis because all the well-differentiated cells studied have similar CNV mosaic patterns . This hypothesis is substantiated by new findings of complex chromosomal imbalances involving not only whole chromosome abnormalities and uniparental disomies but also segmental deletions, duplications, and amplifications in human cleavage-stage in vitro-fertilized embryos . Interestingly, when a CNV pattern is once established, the variation ratio seems to be stable throughout all tissues and remains similar during the whole life, as the data presented here underline.
Understanding these phenomena in more and finer details should open new perspectives in developmental physiology and in personalized medicine. The intraindividual specific mosaicism ratio at a certain disease susceptibility gene might have a higher impact than previously expected, especially for so-called ‘multi-factorial diseases’, and might also explain clinical genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases or clinical signs without apparent mutations when only a single tissue is screened.
This work was supported, in part, by a grant from the University of Jena, the IZKF Jena (Start-up S16), the Evangelische Studienwerk e.V. Villigst, the DFG (436 ARM 17/2/04), the UICC (ICR/05/030), the Deutsche Krebshilfe/Mildred Scheel Stiftung für Krebsforschung (70-3125-Li1), the Stiftung Leukämie, the Stefan-Morsch Foundation and the Monika Kutzner foundation. Some of the applied BAC clones were kindly provided by the Sanger Centre, UK.
|1.||Perry GH,Ben-Dor A,Tsalenko A,Sampas N,Rodriguez-Revenga L,Tran CW,Scheffer A,Steinfeld I,Tsang P,Ya-mada NA,Park HS,Kim JI,Seo JS,Yakhini Z,Laderman S,Bruhn L,Lee C. The fine-scale and complex architecture of human copy-number variationAm. J. Hum. GenetYear: 20088268569518304495|
|2.||Kehrer-Sawatzki H. What a difference copy number variation makesBioEssaysYear: 20072931131317373652|
|3.||Shaw CJ,Lupski JR. Implications of human genome architecture for rearrangement-based disorders: The genomic basis of diseaseHum. Mol. GenetYear: 2004135764|
|4.||Ionita-Laza I,Rogers AJ,Lange C,Raby BA,Lee C. Genetic association analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) in human disease pathogenesisGenomicsYear: 200993222618822366|
|5.||Freeman JL,Perry GH,Feuk L,Redon R,McCarroll SA,Altshuler DM,Aburatani H,Jones KW,Tyler-Smith C,Hurles ME,Carter NP,Scherer SW,Lee C. Copy number variation: New insights in genome diversityGenome ResYear: 20061694996116809666|
|6.||Redon R,Ishikawa S,Fitch KR,Feuk L,Perry GH,An-drews TD,Fiegler H,Shapero MH,Carson AR,Chen W,Cho EK,Dallaire S,Freeman JL,González JR,Gratacòs M,Huang J,Kalaitzopoulos D,Komura D,MacDonald JR,Marshall CR,Mei R,Montgomery L,Nishimura K,Okamura K,Shen F,Somerville MJ,Tchinda J,Valsesia A,Woodwark C,Yang F,Zhang J,Zerjal T,Zhang J,Armengol L,Conrad DF,Estivill X,Tyler-Smith C,Carter NP,Aburatani H,Lee C,Jones KW,Scherer SW,Hurles ME. Global variation in copy number in the human genomeNatureYear: 200644444445417122850|
|7.||Sebat J,Lakshmi B,Troge J,Alexander J,Young J,Lundin P,Månér S,Massa H,Walker M,Chi M,Navin N,Lucito R,Healy J,Hicks J,Ye K,Reiner A,Gilliam TC,Trask B,Patterson N,Zetterberg A,Wigler M. Large-scale copy number polymorphism in the human genomeScienceYear: 200430552552815273396|
|8.||Tuzun E,Sharp AJ,Bailey JA,Kaul R,Morrison VA,Pertz LM,Haugen E,Hayden H,Albertson D,Pinkel D,Olson MV,Eichler EE. Fine-scale structural variation of the human genomeNat. GenetYear: 20053772773215895083|
|9.||Feuk L,Carson AR,Scherer SW. Structural variation in the human genomeNat. Rev. GenetYear: 20067859716418744|
|10.||Nguyen DQ,Webber C,Ponting CP. Bias of selection on human copy number variantsPLoS GenetYear: 20062198207|
|11.||Gonzalez E,Kulkarni H,Bolivar H,Mangano A,Sanchez R,Catano G,Nibbs RJ,Freedman BI,Quinones MP,Bamshad MJ,Murthy KK,Rovin BH,Bradley W,Clark RA,Anderson SA,O'connell RJ,Agan BK,Ahuja SS,Bologna R,Sen L,Dolan MJ,Ahuja SK. The influence of CCL3L1 gene-containing segmental duplications on HIV-1/AIDS susceptibilityScienceYear: 20053071434144015637236|
|12.||Adams DJ,Dermitzakis ET,Cox T,Smith J,Davies R,Banerjee R,Bonfield J,Mullikin JC,Chung YJ,Rogers J,Bradley A. Complex haplotypes, copy number polymorphisms and coding variation in two recently divergent mouse strainsNat. GenetYear: 20053753253615852006|
|13.||Perry GH,Yang F,Marques-Bonet T,Murphy C,Fitzgerald T,Lee AS,Hyland C,Stone AC,Hurles ME,Tyler-Smith C,Eichler EE,Carter NP,Lee C,Redon R. Copy number variation and evolution in humans and chimpanzeesGenome ResYear: 2008181698171018775914|
|14.||Weise A,Gross M,Mrasek K,Mkrtchyan H,Horsthemke B,Jonsrud C,Von Eggeling F,Hinreiner S,Witthuhn V,Claussen U,Liehr T. Parental-origin-determination fluorescence in situ hybridization distinguishes homologous human chromosomes on a single-cell levelInt. J. Mol. MedYear: 20082118920018204785|
|15.||Wu D,Vu Q,Nguyen A,Stone JR,Stubbs H,Kuhlmann G,Sholl LM,Iafrate AJ. In situ genetic analysis of cellular chimerismNat. MedYear: 20091521521919151730|
|16.||Mkrtchyan H,Gross M,Hinreiner S,Polytiko A,Manvelyan M,Mrasek K,Kosyakova N,Ewers E,Nelle H,Liehr T,Volleth M,Weise A. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissuesPLoS OneYear: 20105e959120231887|
|17.||Iourov IY,Vorsanova SG,Yurov YB. Chromosomal variation in mammalian neuronal cells: known facts and attractive hypothesesInt. Rev. CytolYear: 200624914319116697283|
|18.||Yurov YB,Iourov IY,Vorsanova SG,Liehr T,Kolotii AD,Kutsev SI,Pellestor F,Beresheva AK,Demidova IA,Kravets VS,Monakhov VV,Soloviev IV. Aneuploidy and confined chromosomal mosaicism in the developing human brainPLoS OneYear: 20072e55817593959|
|19.||Iourov IY,Vorsanova SG,Yurov YB. Chromosomal mosaicism goes globalMol. CytogenetYear: 200812619032785|
|20.||Bergman Y. Allelic exclusion in B and T lymphopoiesisImmunologyYear: 199911319328|
|21.||Bruder CE,Piotrowski A,Gijsbers AA,Andersson R,Erick-son S,de Ståhl TD,Menzel U,Sandgren J,von Tell D,Poplawski A,Crowley M,Crasto C,Partridge EC,Tiwari H,Allison DB,Komorowski J,van Ommen GJ,Boomsma DI,Pedersen NL,den Dunnen JT,Wirdefeldt K,Dumanski JP. Phenotypically concordant and discordant monozygotic twins display different DNA copy-number-variation profilesAm. J. Hum. GenetYear: 20088276377118304490|
|22.||Piotrowski A,Bruder CE,Andersson R,de Ståhl TD,Menzel U,Sandgren J,Poplawski A,von Tell D,Crasto C,Bogdan A,Bartoszewski R,Bebok Z,Krzyzanowski M,Jankowski Z,Partridge EC,Komorowski J,Dumanski JP. Somatic mosaicism for copy number variation in differentiated human tissuesHum. MutatYear: 2008291118112418570184|
|23.||Liang Q,Conte N,Skarnes WC,Bradley A. Extensive genomic copy number variation in embryonic stem cellsProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAYear: 2008105174531745618988746|
|24.||Polityko AD,Khurs OM,Kulpanovich AI,Mosse KA,Solntsava AV,Rumyantseva NV,Naumchik IV,Liehr T,Weise A,Mkrtchyan H. Paternally derived der(7)t(Y;7) (p11.1~11.2;p22.3)dn in a mosaic case with Turner syndromeEur. J. Med. GenetYear: 20095220721019375526|
|25.||Sugimoto M,Tahara H,Ide T,Furuichi Y. Steps involved in immortalization and tumorigenesis in human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virusCancer ResYear: 2004643361336415150084|
|26.||Verma RS,Babu A. Human Chromosomes—Manual of Basic TechniquesYear: 1989New YorkPergamon Press|
|27.||Shaffer LG,Slova ML,Campbell LJISCN 2009. An International System for Human Cytogenetic NomenclatureYear: 2009BaselS. Karger|
|28.||Vanneste E,Voet T,Le Caignec C,Ampe M,Konings P,Melotte C,Debrock S,Amyere M,Vikkula M,Schuit F,Fryns JP,Verbeke G,D'Hooghe T,Moreau Y,Vermeesch JR. Chromosome instability is common in human cleavage-stage embryosNat. MedYear: 20091557758319396175|
|29.||Arlt MF,Mulle JG,Schaibley VM,Ragland RL,Durkin SG,Warren ST,Glover TW. Replication stress induced genome-wide copy number changes in human cells that resemble polymorphic and pathogenic variantsAm. J. Hum. GenetYear: 20098433935019232554|
|30.||Korbel JO,Urban AE,Affourtit JP,Godwin B,Grubert F,Simons JF,Kim PM,Palejev D,Carriero NJ,Du L,Taillon BE,Chen Z,Tanzer A,Saunders AC,Chi J,Yang F,Carter NP,Hurles ME,Weissman SM,Harkins TT,Gerstein MB,Egholm M,Snyder M. Paired-end mapping reveals extensive structural variation in the human genomeScienceYear: 200731842042617901297|
Keywords: Keywords Copy number variations, pod-FISH, mosaicism..
Previous Document: Ontogenetic variation of the human genome.
Next Document: Somatic mosaicism in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes.