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A history of intraocular pressure and its measurement.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21150677     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Doctors have not always associated elevated intraocular pressure with the vision loss from glaucoma. Although several individuals appear to have noted firmness of the eye in this condition as far back as the 10th century, elevated intraocular pressure was not routinely assessed until the latter part of the 19th century. von Graefe developed the first instrument for measuring intraocular pressure in 1865. The first reasonably accurate instrument was the Maklakoff applanation tonometer of the late 19th century; it was in widespread use throughout Eastern Europe until relatively recently. Schiötz developed an indentation tonometer that was widely used throughout the world during the first two thirds of the 20th century. Goldmann's applanation tonometer of 1950 began the era of truly accurate intraocular pressure measurement. It is still the most widely used tonometer in the world. Other devices such as the McKay-Marg tonometer (or its offspring the Tono-Pen), the pneumatonometer, and airpuff applanation tonometers are gaining adherents. The dynamic contour tonometer is the first totally new concept in tonometry in over 100 years. It is probably the most accurate of all the tonometers and is relatively independent of corneal biomechanical properties unlike its predecessors. Transpalpebral tonometers are attractive as they do not require topical anesthesia; however, they add the biomechanical properties of the eyelid to the list of potential errors and have not proven very accurate. The future should, hopefully, bring tonometers that can give diurnal or even longer indications of intraocular pressure variation. Although intraocular pressure elevation (or its absence) no longer can be counted on for diagnostic purposes, the role of intraocular pressure in the management of glaucomatous optic neuropathy remains critical.
Authors:
Robert L Stamper
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry     Volume:  88     ISSN:  1538-9235     ISO Abbreviation:  Optom Vis Sci     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-03     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8904931     Medline TA:  Optom Vis Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  E16-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. stamperr@vision.ucsf.edu
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