Document Detail

Is fetal cardiac function gender dependent?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21413043     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
INTRODUCTION: An increased nuchal translucency (NT) is more common in males. A delayed diastolic cardiac function maturation has been proposed to explain this and the reported gender-related differences in ductus venosus (DV) flow.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender-related differences in fetal cardiac function.
METHODS: One hundred and ninety karyotypically/phenotypically normal fetuses with structurally normal hearts and known NT measurement, (104 > 95th percentile), were prospectively included between 1 October 2003 and 1 April 2009. They had been referred for fetal echocardiography. Three hundred and nine echocardiograms were performed between 11 and 35 weeks' gestation. The atrioventricular valve E- and A-wave peak velocity, E/A-velocity ratio and E/TVI ratio, myocardial performance index, semilunar valves acceleration time (AT) and peak velocity, stroke volume and cardiac output as well as DV pulsatility index for veins at 11-14 weeks' gestation, were measured. A multilevel analysis was performed using the NT (multiples of the median) as a continuous variable.
RESULTS: The male : female ratio was 1.56:1. The tricuspid valve E/TVI was significantly higher and pulmonary valve AT significantly lower in females compared to males. No other significant differences in cardiac function were found.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest better right ventricular (RV) relaxation and increased RV afterload in female fetuses, independent of NT thickness, between 11 and 35 weeks' gestation.
S A B Clur; K Oude Rengerink; B W Mol; J Ottenkamp; C M Bilardo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article     Date:  2011-03-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Prenatal diagnosis     Volume:  31     ISSN:  1097-0223     ISO Abbreviation:  Prenat. Diagn.     Publication Date:  2011 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-23     Completed Date:  2011-09-30     Revised Date:  2012-01-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8106540     Medline TA:  Prenat Diagn     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  536-42     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Flow Velocity
Echocardiography / methods
Fetal Heart / physiology*
Fetus / blood supply*,  physiology
Gestational Age
Nuchal Translucency Measurement
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Sex Characteristics*
Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods

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