Document Detail

The extended horopter: quantifying retinal correspondence across changes of 3D eye position.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16489859     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The theoretical horopter is an interesting qualitative tool for conceptualizing binocular correspondence, but its quantitative applications have been limited because they have ignored ocular kinematics and vertical binocular sensory fusion. Here we extend the mathematical definition of the horopter to a full surface over visual space, and we use this extended horopter to quantify binocular alignment and visualize its dependence on eye position. We reproduce the deformation of the theoretical horopter into a spiral shape in tertiary gaze as first described by Helmholtz (1867). We also describe a new effect of ocular torsion, where the Vieth-Müller circle rotates out of the visual plane for symmetric vergence conditions in elevated or depressed gaze. We demonstrate how these deformations are reduced or abolished when the eyes follow the modification of Listing's law during convergence called L2, which enlarges the extended horopter and keeps its location and shape constant across gaze directions.
Kai M Schreiber; Douglas B Tweed; Clifton M Schor
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2006-01-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of vision     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1534-7362     ISO Abbreviation:  J Vis     Publication Date:  2006  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-02-21     Completed Date:  2006-03-02     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101147197     Medline TA:  J Vis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  64-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Convergence, Ocular
Depth Perception / physiology*
Eye Movements / physiology*
Fixation, Ocular
Models, Biological*
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Retina / physiology*
Torsion Abnormality
Vision, Binocular / physiology*
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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