Document Detail

The extended amygdala: are the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis differentially involved in fear versus anxiety?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10415655     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Although there is a close correspondence between fear and anxiety, and the study of fear in animals has been extremely valuable for understanding the neural basis of anxiety, it is also clear that a richer animal model of human anxiety disorders would include measures of both stimulus-specific fear and something less stimulus specific, more akin to anxiety. Patients with posttraumatic stress syndrome seem to show normal fear reactions but abnormal anxiety measured with the acoustic startle reflex. Studies in rats, also using the startle reflex, indicate that highly processed explicit cue information (lights, tones) activates the central nucleus of the amygdala, which projects to and modulates the acoustic startle pathway in the brain stem. Less explicit information, such as that produced by exposure to a threatening environment or by intraventricular administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone, may activate another part of the extended amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which also projects to the startle pathway. Because this information may be less specific and of long duration, activation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis may mediate anxiety, whereas activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala may mediate stimulus-specific fear.
M Davis; C Shi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Volume:  877     ISSN:  0077-8923     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.     Publication Date:  1999 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-08-10     Completed Date:  1999-08-10     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506858     Medline TA:  Ann N Y Acad Sci     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  281-91     Citation Subset:  IM    
Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amygdala / physiology*
Anxiety / physiopathology*
Caudate Nucleus / physiology*
Fear / physiology*
Neurons / physiology
Startle Reaction / physiology
Thalamus / physiology*
Grant Support

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