Document Detail

An expanding genetic code.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15522458     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
More than 30 novel amino acids have been genetically encoded in response to unique triplet and quadruplet codons including fluorescent, photoreactive and redox active amino acids, glycosylated and heavy atom derived amino acids in addition to those with keto, azido and acetylenic chains. In this article, we describe recent advances that make it possible to add new building blocks systematically to the genetic codes of bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. Taken together these tools will enable the detailed investigation of protein structure and function, which is not possible with conventional mutagenesis. Moreover, by lifting the constraints of the existing 20-amino-acid code, it should be possible to generate proteins and perhaps entire organisms with new or enhanced properties.
T Ashton Cropp; Peter G Schultz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Trends in genetics : TIG     Volume:  20     ISSN:  0168-9525     ISO Abbreviation:  Trends Genet.     Publication Date:  2004 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-11-03     Completed Date:  2005-02-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8507085     Medline TA:  Trends Genet     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  625-30     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / chemistry,  genetics
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases / genetics,  metabolism
Escherichia coli / genetics
Evolution, Molecular
Genetic Code*
Mammals / genetics
Molecular Structure
Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives*,  chemistry,  genetics,  metabolism
Protein Biosynthesis
Substrate Specificity
Yeasts / genetics
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 2410-24-4/4-aminophenylalanine; 63-91-2/Phenylalanine; EC 6.1.1.-/Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases

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