Document Detail

The estrogenic potential of salicylate esters and their possible risks in foods and cosmetics.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22197706     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Salicylate esters (SEs), a class of chemicals extensively used as flavor and fragrance additives in foods, beverages and a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected to have estrogenic activity based on chemical analysis of in silica molecular docking. We evaluated the estrogenic potentials of phenyl salicylate (PhS), benzyl salicylate (BzS), phenethyl salicylate (PES), ethyl salicylate (ES) and methyl salicylate (MS) using an in vitro human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in vivo immature rodent uterotrophic bioassays. We found that PhS, BzS and PES showed obvious in vitro hERα agonistic activities; BzS in particular exhibited a higher estrogenic activity compared to bisphenol A (BPA). The uterine weights were significantly increased in mice treated with 11.1, 33.3, 100 and 300mg/kg/day BzS and 33.3mg/kg/day PES and rats treated with 3.7, 11.1, 33.3 and 100mg/kg/day BzS for 3 days (P<0.05). Finally, we transformed the daily intakes and the dermal exposures of SEs in the real world into estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). We found that the EEQ of BzS daily intake in consumers in the U.S. and the EEQs of dermal BzS and PES exposure among high-volume users worldwide were higher than the maximum secure daily estradiol intake recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In particular, the EEQ for dermal BzS exposure was up to 162ng EEQ/kg, which is 3.3 times higher than the maximal acceptable daily E(2) intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).
Zhaobin Zhang; Chengxia Jia; Ying Hu; Libei Sun; Jian Jiao; Liang Zhao; Desheng Zhu; Jun Li; Yonglu Tian; Huicheng Bai; Ruobao Li; Jianying Hu
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-12-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicology letters     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-3169     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-26     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7709027     Medline TA:  Toxicol Lett     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
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