Document Detail

The energetic significance of cooking.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19732938     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.
Rachel N Carmody; Richard W Wrangham
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-09-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of human evolution     Volume:  57     ISSN:  1095-8606     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hum. Evol.     Publication Date:  2009 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-10-23     Completed Date:  2010-01-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0337330     Medline TA:  J Hum Evol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  379-91     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Bacterial Infections / epidemiology
Cultural Evolution
Diet, Vegetarian
Dietary Carbohydrates
Energy Metabolism*
Food Handling / methods,  standards
Foodborne Diseases / epidemiology,  microbiology
Solanum tuberosum
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Carbohydrates

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