Document Detail


The effects of methylphenidate on prepulse inhibition during attended and ignored prestimuli among boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12417963     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated attentional modification of prepulse inhibition of startle among boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) whether ADHD is associated with diminished prepulse inhibition during attended prestimuli, but not ignored prestimuli, and (2) whether methylphenidate selectively increases prepulse inhibition to attended prestimuli among boys with ADHD. METHODS: Participants were 17 boys with ADHD and 14 controls. Participants completed a tone discrimination task in each of two sessions separated by 1 week. ADHD boys were administered methylphenidate (0.3 mg/kg) in one session and placebo in the other session in a randomized, double-blind fashion. During each series of 72 tones (75 dB; half 1200-Hz, half 400-Hz), participants were paid to attend to one pitch and ignore the other. Bilateral eyeblink electromyogram startle responses were recorded in response to acoustic probes (50-ms, 102-dB white noise) presented following the onset of two-thirds of tones, and during one-third of intertrial intervals. RESULTS: Relative to controls, boys with ADHD exhibited diminished prepulse inhibition 120 ms after onset of attended but not ignored prestimuli following placebo administration. Methylphenidate selectively increased prepulse inhibition to attended prestimuli at 120 ms among boys with ADHD to a level comparable to that of controls, who did not receive methylphenidate. CONCLUSIONS: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ADHD involves diminished selective attention and suggest that methylphenidate ameliorates the symptoms of ADHD, at least in part, by altering an early attentional mechanism.
Authors:
Larry W Hawk; Andrew R Yartz; William E Pelham; Thomas M Lock
Related Documents :
15969353 - Does methylphenidate improve inhibition and other cognitive abilities in adults with ch...
19467363 - An initial investigation of the orbitofrontal cortex hyperactivity in obsessive-compuls...
23597583 - The simon effect of spatial words in eye movements: comparison of vertical and horizont...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2002-11-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  165     ISSN:  0033-3158     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2003 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-01-09     Completed Date:  2003-04-23     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  118-27     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Park Hall Box 604110, Buffalo, NY 14260-4110, USA. lhawk@buffalo.edu
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Arousal / drug effects
Attention / drug effects*
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis,  drug therapy*,  psychology
Blinking / drug effects
Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use*
Child
Double-Blind Method
Electromyography / drug effects
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)*
Male
Methylphenidate / therapeutic use*
Pitch Discrimination / drug effects*
Startle Reaction / drug effects
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Central Nervous System Stimulants; 113-45-1/Methylphenidate

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


Previous Document:  Portal biliopathy.
Next Document:  Effects of cigarette nicotine content and smoking pace on subsequent craving and smoking.