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The effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and infancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22742605     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In moderate-to-severely iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birthweight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurologic function in the offspring remains uncertain. Two meta-analyses have estimated that iodine-deficient populations experience a mean reduction in IQ of 12-13.5 points. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodisation is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health.
Authors:
Michael B Zimmermann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology     Volume:  26 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1365-3016     ISO Abbreviation:  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8709766     Medline TA:  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  108-17     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland.
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