Document Detail

The effects of high-carbohydrate vs high-fat breakfasts on feelings of fullness and alertness, and subsequent food intake.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10435117     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Fourteen subjects consumed four realistic isoenergetic (2035 kJ) breakfasts, varying in macronutrient content (two fat-rich, two carbohydrate-rich (low- and high-fibre)), in random order on separate mornings. After breakfast, subjects left the laboratory and completed appetite and alertness ratings at specific times and recorded all subsequent fluid and food intake for the rest of the day. The high-fibre, carbohydrate-rich breakfast was the least palatable but most filling meal and was associated with less food intake during the morning and at lunch. Hunger returned at a slower rate after this meal than after the low-fibre, carbohydrate-rich meal. Both fat-rich breakfasts were more palatable but less satiating than the carbohydrate-rich meals and were followed by greater food intake during the morning, which may be a compensatory response to ingest a sufficient amount of food and/or carbohydrate to match the level of fullness produced by the subjects' habitual breakfasts. By the end of the day, the average total energy intake was significantly greater after the fat-rich EB meal than after the high-fibre, carbohydrate-rich meal (P < 0.05). Total day fat intakes were also significantly greater when the high-fat breakfasts were eaten. For every individual test, alertness ratings increased immediately after breakfast was consumed. On average, the high-fibre carbohydrate-rich meal was associated with the highest post-breakfast alertness ratings and with the greatest cumulative amount of alertness during the period between breakfast and lunch (AUC). Alertness AUC values up until lunch correlated positively with fullness AUC values (r = 0.36, P < 0.01, n = 56). The results confirm the relatively weak satiating power of fat-rich meals observed in controlled laboratory-based studies and indicate that a high-fibre, carbohydrate-rich breakfast may assist weight control efforts by maintaining fullness. Further research is required to determine whether satiety directly enhances alertness and whether low-GI carbohydrate-rich meals enhance alertness to a greater degree than high-GI meals.
S H Holt; H J Delargy; C L Lawton; J E Blundell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of food sciences and nutrition     Volume:  50     ISSN:  0963-7486     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Food Sci Nutr     Publication Date:  1999 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-08-19     Completed Date:  1999-08-19     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9432922     Medline TA:  Int J Food Sci Nutr     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  13-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Appetite / drug effects
Awareness / drug effects*
Cereals / chemistry
Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*,  pharmacology
Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*,  pharmacology
Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
Eating / drug effects*
Energy Intake / drug effects
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Postprandial Period / physiology
Satiation / drug effects*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Carbohydrates; 0/Dietary Fats

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