Document Detail

The effects of alcohol on fetal development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21425437     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Prenatal exposure to alcohol has profound effects on many aspects of fetal development. Although alterations of somatic growth and specific minor malformations of facial structure are most characteristic, the effects of alcohol on brain development are most significant in that they lead to substantial problems with neurobehavioral development. Since the initial recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a number of important observations have been made from studies involving both humans and animals. Of particular importance, a number of maternal risk factors have been identified, which may well be of relevance relative to the development of strategies for prevention of the FAS as well as intervention for those who have been affected. These include maternal age >30 years, ethnic group, lower socioeconomic status, having had a previously affected child, maternal under-nutrition, and genetic background. The purpose of this review is to discuss these issues as well as to set forth a number of questions that have not adequately been addressed relative to alcohol's effect on fetal development. Of particular importance is the critical need to identify the full spectrum of structural defects associated with the prenatal effects of alcohol as well as to establish a neurobehavioral phenotype. Appreciation of both of these issues is necessary to understand the full impact of alcohol on fetal development.
Kenneth Lyons Jones
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews     Volume:  93     ISSN:  1542-9768     ISO Abbreviation:  Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-22     Completed Date:  2011-06-30     Revised Date:  2012-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101167665     Medline TA:  Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3-11     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology/Teratology, University of California, San Diego, 92093-0828, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Brain / abnormalities
Ethanol / adverse effects*
Face / abnormalities
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome / diagnosis
Fetal Development*
Models, Animal
Pregnancy Complications
Prenatal Care
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Risk Factors
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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