Document Detail

The effects of 3 environmental risks on mortality disparities across Mexican communities.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18974224     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The disparities in the burden of ill health caused by environmental risks should be an important consideration beyond their aggregate population effects. We used comparative risk assessment methods to calculate the mortality effects of unsafe water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use, and ambient urban particulate matter pollution in Mexico. We also estimated the disparities in mortality caused by each risk factor, across municipios (counties) of residence and by municipio socioeconomic status (SES). Data sources for the analysis were the national census, population-representative health surveys, and air quality monitoring for risk factor exposure; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies for risk factor effects; and vital statistics for disease-specific mortality. During 2001-2005, unsafe water and sanitation, household solid fuel use, and urban particulate matter pollution were responsible for 3,000, 3,600, and 7,600 annual deaths, respectively. Annual child mortality rates would decrease by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.1 per 1,000 children, and life expectancy would increase by 1.0, 1.2, and 2.4 months, respectively, in the absence of these environmental exposures. Together, these risk factors caused 10.6% of child deaths in the lowest-SES communities (0.9 deaths per 1,000 children), but only 4.0% in communities in the highest-SES ones (0.1 per 1,000). In the 50 most-affected municipios, these 3 exposures were responsible for 3.2 deaths per 1,000 children and a 10-month loss of life expectancy. The large disparities in the mortality effects of these 3 environmental risks should form the basis of interventions and environmental monitoring programs.
Gretchen A Stevens; Rodrigo H Dias; Majid Ezzati
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-10-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  105     ISSN:  1091-6490     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-11-05     Completed Date:  2008-12-22     Revised Date:  2013-06-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  16860-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollution / adverse effects
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
Environmental Health
Mexico / epidemiology
Risk Factors
Socioeconomic Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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