Document Detail

The effect of umbilical venous constriction on placental development, cord length and perinatal outcome.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15814216     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Umbilical vein constriction at the fetal abdominal inlet is a common finding after week 13, when the period of umbilical herniation is brought to an end. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a constricting umbilical ring within physiological ranges affects fetal hemodynamics by either pooling blood in the placenta or restricting nutrient transfer to the fetus and thus shift the birthweight/placental weight (BW/PW) ratio. A constriction could also cause pressure changes and elongation of the cord and possibly be a disadvantage during labour. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: 359 Low-risk singleton pregnancies at 13-40 weeks of gestation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standard deviation score (z-score) and regression analysis were used to determine the effect of umbilical vein constriction (expressed by increased blood velocity) on birthweight/placental weight ratio (BW/PW), cord length, Apgar score and emergency delivery due to fetal distress. RESULTS: Umbilical venous constriction had a mild but significant effect on BW/PW in male (p=0.018) but not in female fetuses. Increased constriction was also associated with increased length of the cord but only in female fetuses (p=0.019). Cord length was positively related to birthweight and placental weight, but an increased length of the cord was also associated with decreasing BW/PW ratio for the male fetuses only (p=0.044). Increasing degree of venous constriction was associated with Apgar score < or =7 at 1 (p=0.009) but not at 5 min after birth and was not associated with emergency delivery. CONCLUSION: Physiological umbilical venous constriction exerts a mild but significant gender-specific hemodynamic impact on intrauterine development.
Svein Magne Skulstad; Svein Rasmussen; Silje Seglem; Ragnhild H Svanaes; Hanne May Aareskjold; Torvid Kiserud
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2004-10-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Early human development     Volume:  81     ISSN:  0378-3782     ISO Abbreviation:  Early Hum. Dev.     Publication Date:  2005 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-04-07     Completed Date:  2005-06-14     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7708381     Medline TA:  Early Hum Dev     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  325-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
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MeSH Terms
Apgar Score
Birth Weight
Blood Flow Velocity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Gestational Age
Infant, Newborn
Organ Size
Placenta / anatomy & histology,  growth & development
Placentation / physiology*
Pregnancy Outcome
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Umbilical Cord / anatomy & histology*
Umbilical Veins / physiology*

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