Document Detail

The effect of smoking on the olfactory function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18085020     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Although smoking is a widely spread habit, its effect on olfaction has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory function, using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. Sixty-five smokers were studied, with a median period of smoking of 10 years (range: 1-45 years) and a median number of 15 cigarettes smoked per day (range: 5-20). Forty-nine non-smokers were used as controls. Olfactory function was evaluated using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test, which consists of odour threshold (OT), odour discrimination (OD) and odour identification (OI) and its overall results may be presented as a composite threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) score. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. All OT, OD, OI and TDI scores were statistically significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers, even when controlled for gender and age. Low OT, OD, OI and TDI scores were more prevalent among smokers than non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for gender and age, revealed that smoking remained a strong independent risk factor for low OT, OD, OI and TDI scores. Among smokers, statistically significant negative relationships were found between pack-years and OT, OD, OI and TDI, controlling for age. In conclusion, smoking was found to be adversely associated with the olfactory ability in a dose-related manner. Smokers were found to be nearly six times as likely to evidence an olfactory deficit as non smokers, depending on the duration and the amount of cigarettes smoked.
Michael Katotomichelakis; Dimitrios Balatsouras; Gregory Tripsianis; Spiros Davris; Nikolaos Maroudias; Vassilios Danielides; Constantinos Simopoulos
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Rhinology     Volume:  45     ISSN:  0300-0729     ISO Abbreviation:  Rhinology     Publication Date:  2007 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-12-18     Completed Date:  2008-02-04     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0347242     Medline TA:  Rhinology     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  273-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
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MeSH Terms
Linear Models
Middle Aged
Olfaction Disorders / epidemiology
Sensory Thresholds
Smoking / adverse effects*,  epidemiology
Comment In:
Rhinology. 2007 Dec;45(4):257-8   [PMID:  18085017 ]

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