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The effect of Lidocaine on the viability of cultivated mature human cartilage cells: an in vitro study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21311864     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE: More and more orthopedic procedures are performed in an outpatient setting. A commonly used strategy in pain management is the intra-articular injection of local anesthetics. Recent attention has been drawn to their possible toxic effect on chondrocytes. Local anesthetics, and in particular Lidocaine, are also used for diagnostic joint infiltrations. A controlled laboratory study was performed to investigate the possible toxic effect of Lidocaine on human articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Mature human articular chondrocytes were harvested from the knees of human tissue donors or patients undergoing total knee replacement. The cells were exposed to Lidocaine 1 and 2% with and without epinephrine and to a saline 0.9% control group, with variable exposure times in different experiments. The activity and viability of the cells were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity, interleukin-6 production and a live/dead cell count. RESULTS: After a 1-h exposure, devastating results were seen for Lidocaine 1, 2 and 2% with epinephrine showing cell death rates of 91, 99 and 97%, respectively, compared with 26% in the saline control group (P-values of 0.004, 0.010, 0.006, respectively). Exposing the chondrocytes to a 50/50 mixture of culture medium and local anesthetics substantially decreased cytotoxicity but still showed high toxicity when compared with the saline group (90% dead cells for Lidocaine 2%, P = 0.047). Lidocaine also showed a time-dependent cytotoxicity with gradually more dead cells after exposure for 15, 30 or 60 min. CONCLUSION: In vitro, local anesthetics containing Lidocaine are significantly more toxic to mature human articular chondrocytes than a saline 0.9% control group. The effect of Lidocaine on the viability of human chondrocytes in vivo needs further investigation. However, based on our in vitro results, cautious use of intra-articular Lidocaine in clinical practice is recommended. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prospective, comparative therapeutic study, Level II.
Authors:
Tom F Jacobs; Pieter S Vansintjan; Nathalie Roels; Sofie S Herregods; Gust Verbruggen; Luc L Herregods; Karl F Almqvist
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-2-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1433-7347     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9314730     Medline TA:  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesia, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium, tom.jacobs@ugent.be.
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