Document Detail

The edema tester in the evaluation of swollen limbs in venous and lymphatic disease.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10230249     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Edema is a common condition in most venous and lymphatic diseases. The ACI edema testers (ET) have been developed to objectively evaluate the presence of edema. Two types of testers have been developed. ET1 is a soft plastic plate (5 x 2 cm) characterised by two parallel protrusions while the ET2 is characterised by two lines of 7 holes. METHODS: The ETs are applied onto the internal perimalleolar region with the protrusions/holes in contact with the skin. A blood pressure cuff is applied over the area (pressure maintained at 50 mmHg for a period between 1-3 minutes). When the cuff is removed, with the ET1 skin marks are usually just visible in normal limbs (they disappear in a few minutes). We studied 22 normal limbs, 19 with varicose veins, 22 with chronic venous insufficiency, 5 with primary lymphedema and 8 with severe chronic lymphedema. RESULTS: In limbs with severe edema the whole length of the protrusions is visible; with moderate edema only a part of the protrusions is visible. With the ET2 skin marks are just visible in normal limbs (only the larger holes). Marks disappear in a few minutes in normal limbs while in limbs with edema the number of visible holes is increased (in severe edema all holes are visible). There were significant differences between normals and patients (considering skin mark length, number of visible holes and disappearance times). CONCLUSIONS: The two testers separated patients with different severity of edema due to chronic venous or lymphatic problems. In severe lymphatic problems all parameters were different (p < 0.02) from those observed in venous disease. A reproducibility study indicated that the ET tests have minimal variations in mark visibility or length or hole numbers (for the ET2).
M R Cesarone; G Belcaro; A N Nicolaides; E Arkans; G Laurora; M T De Sanctis; L Incandela
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Panminerva medica     Volume:  41     ISSN:  0031-0808     ISO Abbreviation:  Panminerva Med     Publication Date:  1999 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-06-02     Completed Date:  1999-06-02     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0421110     Medline TA:  Panminerva Med     Country:  ITALY    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  10-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Microcirculation Laboratory, Cardiovascular Institute, Chieti University, PAP/PEA Institute, San Valentino, Pescara.
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MeSH Terms
Diagnostic Equipment*
Edema / diagnosis*
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Extremities / blood supply
Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis*
Middle Aged
Varicose Veins / diagnosis*
Venous Insufficiency / diagnosis*

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