Document Detail

The dynamic development of gender variability.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22455327     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
We diagram and discuss theories of gender identity development espoused by the clinical groups represented in this special issue. We contend that theories of origin relate importantly to clinical practice, and argue that the existing clinical theories are under-developed. Therefore, we develop a dynamic systems framework for gender identity development. Specifically, we suggest that critical aspects of presymbolic gender embodiment occur during infancy as part of the synchronous interplay of caregiver-infant dyads. By 18 months, a transition to symbolic representation and the beginning of an internalization of a sense of gender can be detected and consolidation is quite evident by 3 years of age. We conclude by suggesting empirical studies that could expand and test this framework. With the belief that better, more explicit developmental theory can improve clinical practice, we urge that clinicians take a dynamic developmental view of gender identity formation into account.
Anne Fausto-Sterling
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of homosexuality     Volume:  59     ISSN:  1540-3602     ISO Abbreviation:  J Homosex     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7502386     Medline TA:  J Homosex     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  398-421     Citation Subset:  IM    
a Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry , Brown University , Providence , Rhode Island , USA.
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