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The differential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise modalities and their association with early carotid atherosclerosis progression in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23078531     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVE: Adipokines, visfatin, apelin, vaspin and ghrelin have emerged as novel cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different exercise modalities on the aforementioned novel adipokines and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred patients with Type 2 diabetes were equivalently (n = 25) randomized into four groups: <comment>AUTHOR QUERIES: journal style is to have a minimum of non-standard abbreviations, therefore the group abbreviations of CO, AER, REX and AREX have been written in full throughout, either as group 1, group 2, etc. or as control, aerobic exercise group, etc. Please check throughout that this has been done correctly and appropriately and that the intended sense remains clear</comment>(1) a control group with patients encouraged to perform self-controlled exercise; (2) a supervised aerobic exercise group (exercise four times/week, 60 min/session, 60-75% of maximum heart rate); (3) a resistance training group (60-80% baseline maximum load achieved in one repetition); and (4) a combined aerobic exercise plus resistance training group, as in groups 2 and 3. All participants had HbA(1c) levels ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5%), without overt diabetic vascular complications. Blood samples, clinical characteristics, peak oxygen uptake and carotid intima-media thickness measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study, after 6 months. RESULTS: At baseline, there were non-significant differences between groups. All active groups significantly ameliorated glycaemic profile, insulin sensitivity and triglycerides levels compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Aerobic training further improved lipids, systolic blood pressure and exercise capacity compared with the resistance training and the control groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and visfatin decreased, while vaspin and apelin circulating levels increased within the aerobic exercise group and the aerobic exercise plus resistance training group, and compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Within- and between-group comparisons showed negligible alterations in ghrelin serum levels and body weight after all exercise modalities. Finally, aerobic training attenuated the carotid intima-media thickness progression (0.017 ± 0.00 6mm) compared with the control subjects (0.129 ± 0.042 mm, P < 0.001). That effect was independently associated with visfatin and amelioration of peak oxygen uptake. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with Type 2 diabetes, all exercise training modalities improved metabolic profile. Importantly, aerobic training predominantly ameliorated adipokine concentrations and carotid intima-media thickness progression. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
N P E Kadoglou; G Fotiadis; A Kapelouzou; A Kostakis; C D Liapis; I S Vrabas
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1464-5491     ISO Abbreviation:  Diabet. Med.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8500858     Medline TA:  Diabet Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
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