Document Detail

The development of a new method to estimate total daily dose of pesticides in professional turf applicators following multiple and varied exposures in occupational settings.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11516069     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The evaluation of absorbed dose of pesticides in humans requires a knowledge of the kinetics and dynamics of the compound. In some circumstances, data that allow for the estimation of dose may be available from human volunteer studies, although often, it will be based on results from animal studies. If human metabolism data are available, estimates of dose may be more accurate, but it should be recognized that pesticide exposure in an occupational setting may differ from that in a controlled laboratory study. In this study, data from previously published studies are used to evaluate the urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), following single dermal applications to human volunteers. These studies are evaluated with the objective of determining the best method of predicting total absorbed dose following multiple and varied exposures in occupational settings. Further, an alternative to laboratory-controlled human volunteer studies is presented. Data from a third previously published biological monitoring study on six professional pesticide applicators over a 2-week period were used to generate estimates of the urinary excretion of the pesticide 2,4-D that would result from a single dose. The method used to estimate the urinary excretion parameters is a variation of an overlay technique used in pharmacology, and may provide information on the kinetics of other pesticides when it is not possible to conduct human studies. The generated estimates of 24-h urinary excretion of 2,4-D over a 6-day period were remarkably similar to those obtained in controlled studies. Finally, a method was developed to use the generated estimates to determine total absorbed dose of pesticides for an independent group of 95 professional pesticide applicators. This method requires information on the amount of pesticide used for 6 days prior to the collection of two, 24-h urine samples.
S A Harris; P N Corey; A M Sass-Kortsak; J T Purdham
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International archives of occupational and environmental health     Volume:  74     ISSN:  0340-0131     ISO Abbreviation:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Publication Date:  2001 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-08-22     Completed Date:  2001-12-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7512134     Medline TA:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  345-58     Citation Subset:  IM    
Center for Environmental Studies and Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23248-3050, USA.
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MeSH Terms
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid / pharmacokinetics*,  toxicity,  urine
Environmental Monitoring / methods*
Herbicides / pharmacokinetics*,  toxicity,  urine
Occupational Exposure / adverse effects,  analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Herbicides; 94-75-7/2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

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