Document Detail


The development of effective biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: a review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22674539     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: There is a widely recognised need to develop effective Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers to aid the development of disease-modifying treatments, to facilitate early diagnosis and to improve clinical care. This overview aims to summarise the utility of key neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for AD, before focusing on the latest efforts to identify informative blood biomarkers.
DESIGN: A literature search was performed using PubMed up to September 2011 for reviews and primary research studies of neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography and amyloid imaging), CSF and blood-based (plasma, serum and platelet) biomarkers in AD and mild cognitive impairment. Citations within individual articles were examined to identify additional studies relevant to this review.
RESULTS: Evidence of AD biomarker potential was available for imaging techniques reflecting amyloid burden and neurodegeneration. Several CSF measures are promising, including 42 amino acid β-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 ); total tau (T-tau) protein, reflecting axonal damage; and phosphorylated tau (P-tau), reflecting neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Studies of plasma Aβ have produced inferior diagnostic discrimination. Alternative plasma and platelet measures are described, which represent potential avenues for future research.
CONCLUSIONS: Several imaging and CSF markers demonstrate utility in predicting AD progression and determining aetiology. These require standardisation before forming core elements of diagnostic criteria. The enormous potential available for identifying a minimally-invasive, easily-accessible blood measure as an effective AD biomarker currently remains unfulfilled.
Authors:
Mark S Henry; Anthony P Passmore; Stephen Todd; Bernadette McGuinness; David Craig; Janet A Johnston
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2012-06-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of geriatric psychiatry     Volume:  28     ISSN:  1099-1166     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-07     Completed Date:  2013-09-11     Revised Date:  2013-09-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8710629     Medline TA:  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  331-40     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Affiliation:
Centre for Public Health, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. onehenrymark@hotmail.com
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Alzheimer Disease / cerebrospinal fluid,  diagnosis*,  pathology
Biological Markers / cerebrospinal fluid
Early Diagnosis
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers

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