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The determinants of performance in master swimmers: an analysis of master world records.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22302378     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Human performances in sports decline with age in all competitions/disciplines. Since the effects of age are often compounded by disuse, the study of master athletes provides the opportunity to investigate the effects of age per se on the metabolic/biomechanical determinants of performance. For all master age groups, swimming styles and distances, we calculated the metabolic power required to cover the distance (d) in the best performance time as: [Formula: see text] where C is the energy cost of swimming in young elite swimmers, v (max) = d/BTP is the record speed over the distance d, and BTP was obtained form "cross-sectional data" ( ). To establish a record performance, [Formula: see text] must be equal to the maximal available metabolic power [Formula: see text]. This was calculated assuming a decrease of 1% per year at 40-70 years, 2% at 70-80 years and 3% at 80-90 years (as indicated in the literature) and compared to the [Formula: see text] values, whereas up to about 55 years of age [Formula: see text] for older subjects [Formula: see text] the difference increasing linearly by about 0.30% (backstroke), 1.93% (butterfly), 0.92% (front crawl) and 0.37% (breaststroke) per year (average over the 50, 100 and 200 m distances). These data suggest that the energy cost of swimming increases with age. Hence, the decrease in performance in master swimmers is due to both decrease in the metabolic power available [Formula: see text] and to an increase in C.
P Zamparo; G Gatta; P E di Prampero
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-2-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of applied physiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1439-6327     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-2-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100954790     Medline TA:  Eur J Appl Physiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Faculty of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Verona, via F. Casorati 43, 37131, Verona, Italy,
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