Document Detail


On the deposition of volatiles and semivolatiles from cigarette smoke aerosols: relative rates of transfer of nicotine and ammonia from particles to the gas phase.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15310234     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The hypothesis that elevated levels of ammonia-releasing compounds in tobacco and ammonia in mainstream (MS) smoke increase the rate and amount of nicotine evaporation from the particles of MS smoke aerosol was examined by kinetic modeling and experiments with MS cigarette smoke. Computational simulation of a kinetic mechanism describing volatile loss of nicotine, ammonia, and acetic acid from an aqueous solution was used to compute the time-dependent concentration of all species in the model. Because of the high volatility of ammonia relative to that of nicotine, variation over a wide range of initial ammonia concentration had no significant effect upon the rate of loss of nicotine from the model system. The effects of a variation in the volatile loss rate constant for ammonia and for the acid were examined. The simulations show that ammonia is lost from the model solution at a greater rate than nicotine and acid, and the loss of volatile acid has a significant role in the rate and amount of nicotine loss. Simulations with a model system undergoing a continuous steady addition of ammonia showed that high rates of ammonia addition could significantly increase the rate of nicotine volatile loss from the model solution. A series of smoking experiments was performed using blended cigarettes connected to a denuder tube. Deposition of smoke constituents can occur directly from the gas phase and by the deposition of smoke aerosol particles themselves. As nicotine exists >99% in the particle phase of MS smoke, in the absence of particle deposition, denuder tube deposition of nicotine occurs via the evaporation-deposition pathway. Solanesol, a nonvolatile tobacco and smoke terpene, was used to quantify the amount of particle deposition onto the denuder tube. The amount of ammonia deposited on the denuder tube was an order of magnitude greater than that of nicotine, showing that ammonia evaporates from the MS smoke particles much faster than does nicotine. The experimental results were supported and explained by the aqueous model simulations. Included in these experiments are cigarettes that differ in their MS smoke ammonia content by a factor of ca. five. However, an increased amount of MS smoke ammonia does not increase the rate of nicotine loss from the particles. The combined results support the conclusion that ammonia in mainstream smoke has little effect, if any, upon the rate and amount of nicotine evaporation from MS smoke particles.
Authors:
Jeffrey I Seeman; Peter J Lipowicz; Jean-Jacques Piadé; Laurent Poget; Edward B Sanders; James P Snyder; Clarence G Trowbridge
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemical research in toxicology     Volume:  17     ISSN:  0893-228X     ISO Abbreviation:  Chem. Res. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2004 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-08-16     Completed Date:  2005-03-15     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8807448     Medline TA:  Chem Res Toxicol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1020-37     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
SaddlePoint Frontiers, 12001 Bollingbrook Place, Richmond, Virginia 23236-3218, USA. jiseeman@yahoo.com
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Aerosols
Ammonia / chemistry*,  metabolism
Carboxylic Acids / chemistry
Computer Simulation
Gases / chemistry
Kinetics
Nicotine / chemistry*
Smoke*
Solutions
Terpenes / chemistry
Time Factors
Tobacco / chemistry*
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Volatilization
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Aerosols; 0/Carboxylic Acids; 0/Gases; 0/Smoke; 0/Solutions; 0/Terpenes; 0/Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 13190-97-1/solanesol; 54-11-5/Nicotine; 7664-41-7/Ammonia

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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