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The cost of nickel allergy: a global investigation of coin composition and nickel and cobalt release.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23227867     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Background. Nickel is widely used in coins; nickel may cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in those who handle them. Objectives. To investigate alloy use, coin composition and nickel and cobalt release for a worldwide selection of currently circulating coins. Materials and methods. Eight hundred and fifty coins of 361 different denominations or issues from 52 countries were collected and analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and nickel and cobalt spot tests. Results. Copper-nickel was the most frequently identified coin alloy, being observed in 100 denominations (28%), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently, ∼ 40% of circulating coin denominations do not release nickel.
Authors:
Carsten R Hamann; Dathan Hamann; Curtis Hamann; Jacob P Thyssen; Carola Lidén
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Contact dermatitis     Volume:  68     ISSN:  1600-0536     ISO Abbreviation:  Contact Derm.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7604950     Medline TA:  Contact Dermatitis     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  15-22     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Affiliation:
Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, 550 E. Van Buren Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004-2230, USA SmartPractice, 3400 E. McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008, USA Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup 2900, Denmark Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
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