Document Detail

The control of food intake of free-living humans: putting the pieces back together.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20450867     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The control of food intake has been studied using reductionism; by separately investigating environmental, physiological, and genetic variables. The general model of intake regulation attempts to reassemble the pieces into an organized whole. It postulates that intake is influenced by sets of both physiological factors which have negative feedback loops to intake and environmental factors which do not. Data and behavioral genetic analysis on a number of environmental, psychological, dietary, and social variables demonstrate that they have large impacts on the intake of free-living humans in their everyday environments and their magnitude and impact on intake are influenced by heredity. Recent evidence of built environment influences on activity and intake further indicate the profound influence of environmental circumstances on both intake and expenditure. A computer simulation of the general model of intake regulation demonstrates that the model predicts different maintained levels of intake and body weight depending upon the external environment and that change in the environment can produce new sustained levels. It is suggested that eating is influenced by a myriad of physiological and non-physiological factors and that total intake results from the integral of their influences. It is concluded that recombining the components broken down in the reductionistic process results in a functional whole that can well describe human behavior in natural environments. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.
John M de Castro
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2010-05-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiology & behavior     Volume:  100     ISSN:  1873-507X     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Behav.     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-06-15     Completed Date:  2010-09-16     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0151504     Medline TA:  Physiol Behav     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  446-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
College of Humanities & Social Sciences, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341, United States.
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MeSH Terms
Computer Simulation
Eating / genetics,  physiology*
Feeding Behavior / physiology*,  psychology
Models, Psychological
Grant Support
R21 ES014206-01/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS

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