Document Detail

A comparison of two combinations of xylazine-ketamine administered intramuscularly to alpacas and of reversal with tolazoline.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18282257     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of two doses of intramuscular (IM) xylazine/ketamine in alpacas, and to determine if tolazoline would reduce the anesthetic recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: Six castrated male alpacas. METHODS: Each alpaca received a low dose (LD) (0.8 mg kg(-1) xylazine and 8 mg kg(-1) ketamine IM) and high dose (HD) (1.2 mg kg(-1) xylazine and 12 mg kg(-1) ketamine IM) with a minimum of one week between trials. Time to sedation, duration of lateral recumbency and analgesia, pulse rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, arterial blood pressure, blood-gases, and the electrocardiogram were monitored and recorded during anesthesia. With each treatment three alpacas were randomly selected to receive tolazoline (2 mg kg(-1) IM) after 30 minutes of lateral recumbency. RESULTS: Onset of sedation, lateral recumbency and analgesia was rapid with both treatments. The HD was able to provide > or =30 minutes of anesthesia in five of six alpacas. The LD provided > or =30 minutes of anesthesia in three of six alpacas. Respiratory depression and hypoxemia occurred with the HD treatment during the first 10 minutes of lateral recumbency: two animals were severely hypoxemic and received nasal oxygen for 5 minutes. Heart rate decreased, but there were no significant changes in arterial blood pressure. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of recumbency with the HD. CONCLUSIONS: The HD provided more consistent clinical effects in alpacas than the LD. Intramuscular tolazoline shortened the duration of lateral recumbency in alpacas anesthetized with the HD combination. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both doses of the combination were effective in providing restraint in alpacas and the duration of restraint was dose dependent. Supplemental oxygen should be available if using the HD and IM administration of tolazoline will shorten the recovery time.
Tulio M Prado; William R DuBois; Jeff C H Ko; Ronald E Mandsager; Gregor L Morgan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial     Date:  2008-02-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  35     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Publication Date:  2008 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-05-07     Completed Date:  2008-10-27     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  201-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage,  pharmacology
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology
Anesthetics, Dissociative / administration & dosage,  antagonists & inhibitors,  pharmacology
Camelids, New World*
Cross-Over Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Injections, Intramuscular
Ketamine / administration & dosage,  antagonists & inhibitors,  pharmacology*
Tolazoline / pharmacology*
Xylazine / administration & dosage,  antagonists & inhibitors,  pharmacology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0/Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0/Anesthetics, Dissociative; 59-98-3/Tolazoline; 6740-88-1/Ketamine; 7361-61-7/Xylazine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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