Document Detail

A comparison of muscle activity and heart rate response during backward and forward walking on an underwater treadmill.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16713710     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This investigation compared muscle activities and heart rate (HR) responses while subjects walked backward or forward in water, with and without a water current. Ten healthy males (23.5+/-1.4 years) volunteered for the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities while the subjects walked in water, immersed to the level of the xiphoid process. HR responses were monitored continuously by a telemetry method. A "Flowmill" was used for this study, which involves a treadmill at the base of a water flume. Measurement of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each tested muscle was undertaken prior to gait analysis. The %MVCs obtained from the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were all significantly greater when walking backward than when walking forward, for every experimental condition (P<0.05). HR responses tended to be greater while walking backward than when walking forward, with a statistical significance at fast speed (P<0.05). In conclusion, walking backward in water resulted in significantly greater muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior compared with walking forward in water. These findings may be helpful in developing water-based exercise programs.
Kenji Masumoto; Shin-Ichiro Takasugi; Noboru Hotta; Kazutaka Fujishima; Yukihide Iwamoto
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2006-05-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Gait & posture     Volume:  25     ISSN:  0966-6362     ISO Abbreviation:  Gait Posture     Publication Date:  2007 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-08     Completed Date:  2007-04-03     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9416830     Medline TA:  Gait Posture     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  222-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Exercise Test / methods*
Heart Rate / physiology*
Lower Extremity / physiology
Muscle Contraction / physiology*
Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
Walking / physiology*

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