Document Detail

Cocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990 - 2004).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18187534     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK. The number of mentions on death certificates; last year use of cocaine; treatment demand, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and average purity levels were the indicators used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures (1990-2004) were taken from official UK sources. A total of 1022 cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions (i.e. deaths from any cause where the presence of cocaine/crack cocaine was also detected) were identified, with cocaine/crack cocaine being the sole drug mentioned in 36% of cases. The number of cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions showed a year-on-year increase and correlated positively with the following cocaine (powder) figures: last year use (p < 0.001); number of offenders (p < 0.001) and number of seizures (p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with price (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions correlated positively with the number of crack offenders (p < 0.001) and seizures (p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with both crack purity ( p < 0.001) and price (p < 0.05). With conditions of increasing drug availability having been met in the UK, decrease in cocaine prices were associated with higher consumption levels and this, in turn, contributed to the increase in number of cocaine-related fatalities. There are limitations with the information collected, since no distinction is usually made on medical death certificates between cocaine and crack cocaine. The present study being an ecological one, it proved difficult to address the role of confounding variables that may well explain some of the associations observed.
Fabrizio Schifano; John Corkery
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)     Volume:  22     ISSN:  0269-8811     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)     Publication Date:  2008 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-01-11     Completed Date:  2008-05-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8907828     Medline TA:  J Psychopharmacol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  71-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Pharmacy and Postgraduate Medical Schools, School of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Cocaine / administration & dosage*,  chemistry,  economics
Cocaine-Related Disorders / epidemiology,  mortality,  therapy*
Crack Cocaine / administration & dosage*
Great Britain / epidemiology
Seizures / chemically induced*
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Crack Cocaine; 50-36-2/Cocaine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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