Document Detail


Cocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990 - 2004).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18187534     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
A recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK. The number of mentions on death certificates; last year use of cocaine; treatment demand, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and average purity levels were the indicators used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures (1990-2004) were taken from official UK sources. A total of 1022 cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions (i.e. deaths from any cause where the presence of cocaine/crack cocaine was also detected) were identified, with cocaine/crack cocaine being the sole drug mentioned in 36% of cases. The number of cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions showed a year-on-year increase and correlated positively with the following cocaine (powder) figures: last year use (p < 0.001); number of offenders (p < 0.001) and number of seizures (p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with price (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions correlated positively with the number of crack offenders (p < 0.001) and seizures (p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with both crack purity ( p < 0.001) and price (p < 0.05). With conditions of increasing drug availability having been met in the UK, decrease in cocaine prices were associated with higher consumption levels and this, in turn, contributed to the increase in number of cocaine-related fatalities. There are limitations with the information collected, since no distinction is usually made on medical death certificates between cocaine and crack cocaine. The present study being an ecological one, it proved difficult to address the role of confounding variables that may well explain some of the associations observed.
Authors:
Fabrizio Schifano; John Corkery
Related Documents :
8885954 - Prenatal cocaine and neonatal outcome: evaluation of dose-response relationship.
15502114 - Parental smoking and airway reactivity in healthy infants.
17450234 - Smoking during pregnancy affects speech-processing ability in newborn infants.
15328304 - Parental smoking and passive smoking in infants: fathers matter too.
15822244 - Death anxiety and personal growth in adolescents experiencing the death of a grandparent.
11102294 - Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distrib...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)     Volume:  22     ISSN:  0269-8811     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)     Publication Date:  2008 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-01-11     Completed Date:  2008-05-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8907828     Medline TA:  J Psychopharmacol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  71-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Pharmacy and Postgraduate Medical Schools, School of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, UK. f.schifano@herts.ac.uk
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Cocaine / administration & dosage*,  chemistry,  economics
Cocaine-Related Disorders / epidemiology,  mortality,  therapy*
Commerce
Crack Cocaine / administration & dosage*
Crime
Great Britain / epidemiology
Humans
Seizures / chemically induced*
Time Factors
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Crack Cocaine; 50-36-2/Cocaine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


Previous Document:  Effects of addiction-associated and affective stimuli on the attentional blink in a sample of abstin...
Next Document:  Development and initial validation of a caffeine craving questionnaire.