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A clinical risk score for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease: An analysis of the PROactive study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21636144     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for heart failure, which is further increased in the presence of coronary heart disease. So far no clinical risk score for development of heart failure exists for patients with type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease. METHODS: Independent clinical predictors for heart failure events were identified by Cox regression in a post-hoc analysis of the PROactive trial and were used for calculating a risk prediction score. RESULTS: 233 of 4951 patients with available baseline data suffered a serious adverse heart failure event during a mean follow-up of 34.5 (±2.3) months. Age, renal dysfunction, diuretic use, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, LDL-cholesterol, heart rate, right and left bundle branch block, microalbuminuria, previous myocardial infarction and pioglitazone treatment were independent predictors of heart failure. The risk score showed a good calibration and moderate discrimination (AUC 0.75). Patients were accurately stratified with an actual risk of 1.0%, 3.2% and 9.7% in the bottom, middle and top tertile of the score, respectively, with corresponding hazard ratios of 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2) and 10.5 (95% CI 6.3-17.6) for the middle and top tertile compared to the bottom tertile (both p<0.0001). The score stratified well in subgroups defined by pioglitazone treatment, prior myocardial infarction, obesity, poor glycemic control and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: A risk score based on routinely assessed clinical variables proved a good stratification for future heart failure events in diabetic patients with macrovascular disease. Strategies targeting specific interventions and monitoring of high risk patients need further evaluation.
Roman Pfister; Richard Cairns; Erland Erdmann; Christian A Schneider
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-5-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of cardiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1874-1754     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-6-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200291     Medline TA:  Int J Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Department III of Internal Medicine, Herzzentrum, University of Cologne, Germany.
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