Document Detail

The cardiovascular effects of upper-limb aerobic exercise in hypertensive patients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18551008     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is broadly recommended as a helpful adjunct to obtain blood pressure control in hypertension. Several hypertensive patients, however, are limited by musculoskeletal complaints or vascular occlusive disease from lower-limb exercise such as jogging or cycling. In the present randomized-controlled study, we evaluate whether an aerobic arm-cycling program provides a measurable cardiovascular benefit. METHODS: Twenty-four probands were randomly assigned to sedentary activity or a heart rate controlled 12 week exercise program, consisting of arm-cycling at target lactate concentrations of 2.0 +/- 0.5 mmol/l. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Augmentation index and large/small artery compliance (C(1) and C(2)) were measured by computerized pulse-wave analysis of the radial artery. RESULTS: The exercise program led to a significant reduction in systolic (134.0 +/- 20.0 to 127.0 +/- 16.4 mmHg; P = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (73.0 +/- 21.6 to 67.1 +/- 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.02) accompanied by a significant improvement in C(2) (3.5 +/- 1.6 to 4.8 +/- 2.0 ml/mmHg x 100; P = 0.004). Flow-mediated dilation, augmentation index, and C(2) were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). Physical performance as derived from lactate and heart rate curves of lower-limb stress tests was unchanged, whereas maximal workload in an upper-limb ergometry significantly increased (P = 0.005). Blood pressure and vascular parameters remained unchanged in the control group. CONCLUSION: Regular arm aerobic exercise leads to a marked reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and an improvement in small artery compliance. Arm-cycling is a reasonable option for hypertensive patients who want to support blood pressure control by sports despite having coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, or intermittent claudication.
Timm H Westhoff; Sven Schmidt; Viola Gross; Marian Joppke; Walter Zidek; Markus van der Giet; Fernando Dimeo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of hypertension     Volume:  26     ISSN:  0263-6352     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hypertens.     Publication Date:  2008 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-06-13     Completed Date:  2008-10-23     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8306882     Medline TA:  J Hypertens     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1336-42     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Nephrology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm, Berlin, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Brachial Artery / physiopathology
Exercise / physiology*
Exercise Test
Exercise Therapy*
Hypertension / physiopathology,  therapy*
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Upper Extremity / physiopathology*

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