Document Detail

Is cardiac diagnosis a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery in infancy?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20951391     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a cardiac diagnosis is a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcomes after infant cardiac surgery.
METHODS: Infants with ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) in a study of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms, and neurodevelopmental outcome underwent neurodevelopmental and genetic evaluation at 4 years of age. The domains tested included cognition, language, speech, memory, executive function, visual-motor, fine motor, and reading and math skills.
RESULTS: Testing was completed in 178 patients with normal genetic evaluations: VSD (n = 26), TOF (n = 44), TGA (n = 41), and HLHS (n = 67). No differences were found in gestational age, ethnicity, APOE genotype, socioeconomic status, or maternal education among groups. Patient age at the first surgery was significantly lower for patients with TGA and HLHS compared with those with TOF and VSD. The postoperative length of stay was significantly longer for HLHS than all other groups and for TGA compared with TOF and VSD. HLHS correlated significantly with the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and multiple operations. The mean scores for each domain were within normal limits for all groups. Compared with the other patients, those with HLHS had significantly lower scores for cognition, fine motor skills, executive function, and math skills. No significant differences were found among the TGA, TOF or VSD patients for any domain. Significant impairments in at least 1 domain were identified in 8% (2/25) of patients with VSD, 20% (8/41) with TOF, 17% (7/41) with TGA, and 18% (12/65) with HLHS. After correction for the demographic, preoperative, and operative variables, no significant differences were found among the groups for any domain.
CONCLUSIONS: The mean scores for the neurodevelopmental outcomes domains tested were in the normal range for preschool children with no recognized genetic syndromes after surgery for VSD, TOF, TGA, and HLHS. In each diagnostic group, the number of children with impairments in at least 1 domain increased compared with the general population. Unadjusted neurodevelopmental outcomes for HLHS were lower for cognition, fine motor skills, executive function, and math skills compared with the other patients. After correction for the demographic, preoperative, and operative variables, no significant differences were found among the groups for any domain. The specific cardiac diagnosis determines a large portion of the variation in these covariates. Therefore, although HLHS did predict for poorer outcomes in some domains, it did not add predictive power to the other factors considered.
J William Gaynor; Marsha Gerdes; Alex S Nord; Judy Bernbaum; Elaine Zackai; Gil Wernovsky; Robert R Clancy; Patrick J Heagerty; Cynthia B Solot; Donna McDonald-McGinn; Gail P Jarvik
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-10-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery     Volume:  140     ISSN:  1097-685X     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.     Publication Date:  2010 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-16     Completed Date:  2010-12-23     Revised Date:  2014-09-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376343     Medline TA:  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1230-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Apolipoprotein E2 / genetics
Child Development*
Child, Preschool
Cognition Disorders / etiology,  physiopathology
Executive Function / physiology
Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis*,  surgery*
Hypothermia, Induced
Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
Motor Skills
Nervous System Diseases / etiology*,  physiopathology
Neuropsychological Tests
Predictive Value of Tests
Prospective Studies
Risk Factors
Treatment Outcome
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Apolipoprotein E2

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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