Document Detail

The biology and cytogenetics of multiple myeloma.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12616699     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Despite the advances in our knowledge of myeloma cell biology, our understanding of myeloma pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we present a summary of the cellular and molecular aspects of B-cell development and immunoglobulin (lg) gene rearrangement which have been important in defining the characteristics of the myeloma plasma cell (MPC). The PMC has undergone variable gene recombination, somatic hypermutation and isotype switching, and is therefore at a postgerminal center stage of development. The finding of preswitch clonal cells and isotype variants have raised interesting questions about the cell of origin of myeloma, for which no conclusive data is as yet available. However much information has been obtained about the chromosomal and genetic aberrations in myeloma, including monosomy 13, Ig heavy chain (IgH) switch region translocations, numerical abnormalities and a multitude of heterogeneous changes. A variety of techniques have been developed to overcome the insensitivity of conventional karyotyping, utilizing molecular cytogenetic strategies ranging from the delineation of precise loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization, a more "global" assessment of the genome by multicolor spectral karyotyping, to the quantitation of chromosomal material of specific origin by comparative genomic hybridization. Whether the abnormalities detected represent oncogenic insults, are involved in disease progression or are simply "by-products" of genetic instability is still unclear. For IgH translocations, the role of candidate genes such as Cyclin D1 and FGFR3 has been studied extensively by quantitating their expression and assessment of their oncogenicity (e.g. for FGFR3) in animal models. The significance of other aberrations such as c-myc, ras and p53 has also been investigated. With the advent of oligonucleotide microarrays, the expression of thousands of genes can be efficiently examined. So far, this approach seems promising in defining subgroups of different disease behavior, and may highlight specific genes and molecular mechanisms which are important in myeloma pathogenesis.
P Joy Ho; Lynda J Campbell; John Gibson; Ross Brown; Douglas Joshua
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reviews in clinical and experimental hematology     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1127-0020     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev Clin Exp Hematol     Publication Date:  2002 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-03-05     Completed Date:  2003-07-02     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815344     Medline TA:  Rev Clin Exp Hematol     Country:  Italy    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  276-300     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Haematology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
B-Lymphocytes / cytology,  immunology
Chromosome Aberrations
Cytogenetic Analysis
Genes, Immunoglobulin
Multiple Myeloma / etiology,  genetics,  pathology*

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