Document Detail

The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: Neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian vertebrates.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20547474     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
If severe enough, periods of acute stress in animals may be associated with the release of catecholamine hormones (noradrenaline and adrenaline) into the circulation; a response termed the acute humoral adrenergic stress response. The release of catecholamines from the sites of storage, the chromaffin cells, is under neuroendocrine control, the complexity of which appears to increase through phylogeny. In the agnathans, the earliest branching vertebrates, the chromaffin cells which are localized predominantly within the heart, lack neuronal innervation and thus catecholamine secretion in these animals is initiated solely by humoral mechanisms. In the more advanced teleost fish, the chromaffin cells are largely confined to the walls of the posterior cardinal vein at the level of the head kidney where they are intermingled with the steroidogenic interrenal cells. Catecholamine secretion from teleost chromaffin cells is regulated by a host of cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways that ensure sufficient redundancy and flexibility in the secretion process to permit synchronized responses to a myriad of stressors. The complexity of catecholamine secretion control mechanisms continues through the amphibians, reptiles and birds although neural (cholinergic) regulation may become increasingly important in birds. Discrete adrenal glands are present in the non-mammalian tetrapods but unlike in mammals, there is no clear division of a steroidogenic cortex and a chromaffin cell enriched medulla. However, in all groups, there is an obvious intermingling of chromaffin and steroiodogenic cells. The association of the two cell types may be particularly important in the amphibians and birds because like in mammals, the enzyme catalysing the methylation of noradrenaline to adrenaline, PNMT, is under the control of the steroid cortisol.
Steve F Perry; Anna Capaldo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-06-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical     Volume:  165     ISSN:  1872-7484     ISO Abbreviation:  Auton Neurosci     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-03     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100909359     Medline TA:  Auton Neurosci     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  54-66     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.
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