Document Detail

The association between cadmium, lead and mercury blood levels and reproductive hormones among healthy, premenopausal women.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21778284     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Cadmium, lead and mercury have been identified in human follicular fluid and ovarian tissue, and have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in epidemiologic studies; however, few studies have examined the relationship between blood metal levels and reproductive hormones.
METHODS: Among 252 premenopausal women aged 18-44 years, we examined the association between blood metal levels (cadmium, lead and mercury), cycle length, and reproductive hormones [FSH, LH, estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone] measured at clinically relevant time points in the menstrual cycle. The association between metal levels (continuous) and hormone levels was assessed using linear regression with hormone levels (natural) log transformed and the results interpreted as the percentage difference in hormone level per unit increase in metal level.
RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) cadmium, lead and mercury levels were 0.30 µg/l (0.19, 0.43), 0.87 µg/dl (0.68, 1.20) and 1.10 µg/l (0.58, 2.10), respectively. Each 1 µg/l increase in cadmium levels was associated with a 21% [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.9, 49.9] increase in early follicular phase E(2) levels after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, lead and mercury. This association decreased when restricted to never smokers (10%; 95% CI: -19.5, 51.3). Cadmium was also associated with a non-significant 9% (95% CI: -0.2, 19.9), or 2.7 day, increase in cycle length among never smokers. No associations were observed between lead or mercury and the outcomes in adjusted analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Further evaluation of the association between cadmium, E(2) and cycle length is warranted, taking into consideration cigarette smoke and its multiple components.
L W Jackson; P P Howards; J Wactawski-Wende; E F Schisterman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural     Date:  2011-07-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human reproduction (Oxford, England)     Volume:  26     ISSN:  1460-2350     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum. Reprod.     Publication Date:  2011 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-09-16     Completed Date:  2012-03-25     Revised Date:  2013-06-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8701199     Medline TA:  Hum Reprod     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2887-95     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106-4945, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cadmium / blood*
Estradiol / blood
Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood
Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
Lead / blood*
Luteinizing Hormone / blood
Menstrual Cycle
Mercury / blood*
Models, Statistical
Progesterone / blood
Regression Analysis
Treatment Outcome
Reg. No./Substance:
50-28-2/Estradiol; 57-83-0/Progesterone; 7439-92-1/Lead; 7439-97-6/Mercury; 7440-43-9/Cadmium; 9002-67-9/Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0/Follicle Stimulating Hormone

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