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The arterial and cardiac epicardium in development, disease and repair.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22652098     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The importance of the epicardium covering the heart and the intrapericardial part of the great arteries has reached a new summit. It has evolved as a major cellular component with impact both in development, disease and more recently also repair potential. The role of the epicardium in development, its differentiation from a proepicardial organ at the venous pole (vPEO) and the differentiation capacities of the vPEO initiating cardiac epicardium (cEP) into epicardium derived cells (EPDCs) have been extensively described in recent reviews on growth and transcription factor pathways. In short, the epicardium is the source of the interstitial, the annulus fibrosus and the adventitial fibroblasts, and differentiates into the coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, EPDCs induce growth of the compact myocardium and differentiation of the Purkinje fibers. This review includes an arterial pole located PEO (aPEO) that provides the epicardium covering the intrapericardial great vessels. In avian and mouse models disturbance of epicardial outgrowth and maturation leads to a broad spectrum of cardiac anomalies with main focus on non-compaction of the myocardium, deficient annulus fibrosis, valve malformations and coronary artery abnormalities. The discovery that in disease both arterial and cardiac epicardium can again differentiate into EPDCs and thus reactivate its embryonic program and potential has highly broadened the scope of research interest. This reactivation is seen after myocardial infarction and also in aneurysm formation of the ascending aorta. Use of EPDCs for cell therapy show their positive function in paracrine mediated repair processes which can be additive when combined with the cardiac progenitor stem cells that probably share the same embryonic origin with EPDCs. Research into the many cell-autonomous and cell-cell-based capacities of the adult epicardium will open up new realistic therapeutic avenues.
Authors:
Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot; Elizabeth M Winter; Margot M Bartelings; Marie Jose Goumans; Marco C Deruiter; Robert E Poelmann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Differentiation; research in biological diversity     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1432-0436     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-6-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401650     Medline TA:  Differentiation     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postal zone: S-5-24, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postal zone: S-1-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
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