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Young women with major depression live on higher homeostatic sleep pressure than healthy controls.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22390241     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There is mounting evidence for the involvement of the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian system in the pathogenesis of major depression. However, only a few studies so far focused on sleep and circadian rhythms under controlled experimental conditions. Thus, it remains unclear whether homeostatic sleep pressure or circadian rhythms, or both, are altered in depression. Here, the authors aimed at quantifying homeostatic and circadian sleep-wake regulatory mechanisms in young women suffering from major depressive disorder and healthy controls during a multiple nap paradigm under constant routine conditions. After an 8-h baseline night, 9 depressed women, 8 healthy young women, and 8 healthy older women underwent a 40-h multiple nap protocol (10 short sleep-wake cycles) followed by an 8-h recovery night. Polysomnographic recordings were done continuously, and subjective sleepiness was assessed. In order to measure circadian output, salivary melatonin samples were collected during scheduled wakefulness, and the circadian modulation of sleep spindles was analyzed with reference to the timing of melatonin secretion. Sleep parameters as well as non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra were determined for collapsed left, central, and right frontal, central, parietal, and occipital derivations for the night and nap-sleep episodes in the frequency range .75-25 Hz. Young depressed women showed higher frontal EEG delta activity, as a marker of homeostatic sleep pressure, compared to healthy young and older women across both night sleep episodes together with significantly higher subjective sleepiness. Higher delta sleep EEG activity in the naps during the biological day were observed in young depressed women along with reduced nighttime melatonin secretion as compared to healthy young volunteers. The circadian modulation of sleep spindles between the biological night and day was virtually absent in healthy older women and partially impaired in young depressed women. These data provide strong evidence for higher homeostatic sleep pressure in young moderately depressed women, along with some indications for impairment of the strength of the endogenous circadian output signal involved in sleep-wake regulation. This finding may have important repercussions on the treatment of the illness as such that a selective suppression of EEG slow-wave activity could promote acute mood improvement. (Author correspondence: Christian.cajochen@upkbs.ch ).
Authors:
Sylvia Frey; Angelina Birchler-Pedross; Marcel Hofstetter; Patrick Brunner; Thomas Götz; Mjriam Münch; Katharina Blatter; Vera Knoblauch; Anna Wirz-Justice; Christian Cajochen
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chronobiology international     Volume:  29     ISSN:  1525-6073     ISO Abbreviation:  Chronobiol. Int.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-06     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8501362     Medline TA:  Chronobiol Int     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  278-94     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Centre for Chronobiology , Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
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