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Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and Southeast Asian village dogs suggests a Neolithic continental expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23408799     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Dogs originated >14,000 BP, but the location(s) where they first arose is uncertain. The earliest archaeological evidence of ancient dogs was discovered in Europe and the Middle East, some 5-7 millennia before that from Southeast Asia. However, mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that most modern dogs derive from Southeast Asia, which has fueled the controversial hypothesis that dog domestication originated in this region despite the lack of supporting archaeological evidence. We propose and investigate with Y chromosomes an alternative hypothesis for the proximate origins of dogs from Southeast Asia--a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from this region that largely replaced more primitive dogs to the west and north. Previous attempts to test matrilineal findings with independent patrilineal markers have lacked the necessary genealogical resolution and mutation rate estimates. Here, we used Y chromosome genotypes, composed of 29 SNPs and 5 STRs, from 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea singing dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, along with modern European breed dogs, to estimate the evolutionary mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs based on calibration to the independently known age of the dingo population. Dingoes exhibited a unique haplogroup characterized by a single distinguishing SNP mutation and 14 STR haplotypes. The age of the European haplogroup was estimated to be only 1.7 times older than that of the dingo population, suggesting an origin during the Neolithic rather than the Paleolithic (as predicted by the Southeast Asian origins hypothesis). We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West. Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia directly from Taiwan, independently of later dispersals of dogs through Thailand to Island Southeast Asia.
Authors:
Benjamin N Sacks; Sarah K Brown; Danielle Stephens; Niels C Pedersen; Jui-Te Wu; Oliver Berry
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular biology and evolution     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1537-1719     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Biol. Evol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8501455     Medline TA:  Mol Biol Evol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
1 Canid Diversity and Conservation Unit, Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
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