Document Detail

Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22123956     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria that can spread within insect populations because of their unique ability to manipulate host reproduction. When introduced to nonnative mosquito hosts, Wolbachia induce resistance to a number of human pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium, and filarial nematodes, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, we have deciphered how Wolbachia infection affects the Aedes aegypti host in inducing resistance to DENV. The microarray assay indicates that transcripts of genes with functions related to immunity and reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are up-regulated in Ae. aegypti infected with Wolbachia. Infection with this bacterium leads to induction of oxidative stress and an increased level of reactive oxygen species in its mosquito host. Reactive oxygen species elevation is linked to the activation of the Toll pathway, which is essential in mediating the expression of antioxidants to counterbalance oxidative stress. This immune pathway also is responsible for activation of antimicrobial peptides-defensins and cecropins. We provide evidence that these antimicrobial peptides are involved in inhibition of DENV proliferation in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Utilization of transgenic Ae. aegypti and the RNAi depletion approach has been instrumental in proving the role of defensins and cecropins in the resistance of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti to DENV. These results indicate that a symbiotic bacterium can manipulate the host defense system to facilitate its own persistent infection, resulting in a compromise of the mosquito's ability to host human pathogens. Our discoveries will aid in the development of control strategies for mosquito-transmitted diseases.
Xiaoling Pan; Guoli Zhou; Jiahong Wu; Guowu Bian; Peng Lu; Alexander S Raikhel; Zhiyong Xi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-11-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  109     ISSN:  1091-6490     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-05     Completed Date:  2012-03-06     Revised Date:  2013-06-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  E23-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Entomology and Genetics Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Aedes / genetics,  microbiology*,  virology*
Animals, Genetically Modified
Antioxidants / metabolism
Cecropins / metabolism
Defensins / metabolism
Dengue / immunology,  virology
Dengue Virus / physiology*
Fat Body / metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / immunology,  microbiology
Insect Proteins / genetics,  metabolism
Models, Immunological
Organ Specificity
Oxidative Stress
Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
Signal Transduction* / genetics
Toll-Like Receptors / genetics*,  metabolism
Wolbachia / physiology*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antioxidants; 0/Cecropins; 0/Defensins; 0/Insect Proteins; 0/Reactive Oxygen Species; 0/Toll-Like Receptors

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