Document Detail

Within- and between-individual variation in energy intakes by low-income Peruvian infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8055849     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: (i) To examine the components of variation in infant energy intake. (ii) To calculate the precision of estimates of energy intake from different sources. (iii) To estimate the number of dietary studies required to estimate true energy intake with varying degrees of precision. DESIGN: Energy intakes were determined from monthly 12-h observations with test-weighing of breastmilk and all foods consumed. Variance components were evaluated by pooling results of studies performed when infants were 1-4, 5-8 and 9-12 months old. SETTING: Pueblo Joven Huáscar, a low-income, peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. SUBJECTS: 124 infants who were enrolled at birth and followed monthly. RESULTS: Within-to-between infant variance ratios were > 1.0 for total energy and energy from solid foods, and < 1.0 for energy from breast- and non-human milks during the 4-month periods examined. Total energy and energy from breastmilk were estimated to within 13-24% of infants' true intake. Non-breastmilk energy was estimated to within 19-143% of true intake. Four dietary studies per age period are required to estimate total energy and breastmilk energy consumption with 20-30% precision. At least 16 studies are required to estimate infants' average energy intake from solid foods from 5-8 months with 30% precision. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of precision achieved during assessment of infants' usual energy intake changes with age and composition of the diet. Thus, the number of dietary studies required to obtain a fixed level of precision differs according to these characteristics.
Pueblo Joven Huascar, a low-income periurban community in Lima, Peru, was chosen 1) to examine the components of variation in infant energy intake, 2) to calculate the precision of estimates of energy intake from different sources, and 3) to estimate the number of dietary studies required to estimate true energy intake. The sample consisted of 1564 observations on 124 infants who were enrolled at birth and followed monthly. Total energy intake, and energy from breastmilk, nonhuman milk, or other liquids and solid food sources were calculated for each observation. Means, standard deviations and coefficients of variation for total energy and source-specific energy intakes were calculated for infancy (1-12 months), and for the successive 4-month periods. For months 1-12, the pooled ratio for total energy was 2.91. Pooled, age-specific coefficients of within-infant variation in total energy intake were 70% greater and between-infant coefficient of variation were 20-50% lower compared to a study of 48 breastfed British infants. For months 1-12, variance ratios for breastmilk and nonhuman milk were 0.75 and 1.15, compared to ratios of 3.72 and 3.69 for non-milk liquids and solid foods, respectively. For total energy, total energy per kg body weight, and breastmilk energy, the within-to-between infant variance ratios were larger during 1-4 months compared to later infancy. Ratios for energy from nonhuman milk, other liquids, and solid foods were somewhat greater from 9 to 12 months compared to 5-8 months. These data suggest that pooled monthly dietary studies will give estimates of infants' mean total and breastmilk energy intakes that are within 20-30% of their true mean intakes during each of the 4-month age periods examined. Monthly estimates of solid food energy intake by infants from 9-12 months will also be within 20% of the truth. At least 16 dietary studies are required, however, to estimate infants' average solid food energy intake when they are 5-8 month old, and be within 30% of their true intake for this period.
E G Piwoz; H Creed de Kanashiro; G Lopez de Romaña; R E Black; K H Brown
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  48     ISSN:  0954-3007     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur J Clin Nutr     Publication Date:  1994 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-09-12     Completed Date:  1994-09-12     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8804070     Medline TA:  Eur J Clin Nutr     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  333-40     Citation Subset:  IM; J    
Department of International Health, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205.
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding
Developing Countries*
Energy Intake / physiology*
Infant Food
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritive Value
Urban Population*

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