Document Detail

Whole-thorax irradiation induces hypoxic respiratory failure, pleural effusions and cardiac remodeling.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25368342     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
To study the mechanisms of death following a single lethal dose of thoracic radiation, WAG/RijCmcr (Wistar) rats were treated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax and followed until they were morbid or sacrificed for invasive assays at 6 weeks. Lung function was assessed by breathing rate and arterial oxygen saturation. Lung structure was evaluated histologically. Cardiac structure and function were examined by echocardiography. The frequency and characteristics of pleural effusions were determined. Morbidity from 15 Gy radiation occurred in all rats 5 to 8 weeks after exposure, coincident with histological pneumonitis. Increases in breathing frequencies peaked at 6 weeks, when profound arterial hypoxia was also recorded. Echocardiography analysis at 6 weeks showed pulmonary hypertension and severe right ventricular enlargement with impaired left ventricular function and cardiac output. Histologic sections of the heart revealed only rare foci of lymphocytic infiltration. Total lung weight more than doubled. Pleural effusions were present in the majority of the irradiated rats and contained elevated protein, but low lactate dehydrogenase, when compared with serum from the same animal. Pleural effusions had a higher percentage of macrophages and large monocytes than neutrophils and contained mast cells that are rarely present in other pathological states. Lethal irradiation to rat lungs leads to hypoxia with infiltration of immune cells, edema and pleural effusion. These changes may contribute to pulmonary vascular and parenchymal injury that result in secondary changes in heart structure and function. We report that conditions resembling congestive heart failure contribute to death during radiation pneumonitis, which indicates new targets for therapy.
Meetha Medhora; Feng Gao; Chad Glisch; Jayashree Narayanan; Ashish Sharma; Leanne M Harmann; Michael W Lawlor; Laura A Snyder; Brian L Fish; Julian D Down; John E Moulder; Jennifer L Strande; Elizabeth R Jacobs
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-3
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of radiation research     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1349-9157     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Radiat. Res.     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-11-5    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376611     Medline TA:  J Radiat Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.
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