Document Detail

Whole grains, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension: links to the aleurone preferred over indigestible fiber.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23355358     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Higher whole grain cereal intakes are associated with substantially lower risks of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. These reduced risks have been established in large prospective studies that now include millions of person-years of follow-up. We analyze the results of 11 major prospective studies to provide recommendations about whole grain consumption. The following review establishes the amount of whole grains that should ideally be consumed based on prospective evidence; defines the nature of whole grains; identifies that the whole grain evidence is robust and not due to confounding; and provides a detailed assessment of several potential mechanisms for the effect of whole grains on health. We draw the following conclusions. Firstly, to maintain health, 40 grams or more of whole grains should be consumed daily. This is about a bowl of whole grain breakfast cereal daily, but 80% of the population does not achieve this. Secondly, aleurone in bran is a critical grain component generally overlooked in favor of indigestible fiber. Live aleurone cells constitute 50% of millers' bran. They store minerals, protein, and the antioxidant ferulic acid, and are clearly more than just indigestible fiber. Finally, we suggest potential roles for magnesium, zinc, and ferulic acid in the development of chronic disease. If the results of prospective studies were applied to the life-style practices of modern societies there exists the potential for enormous personal health and public financial benefits.
Stephen Lillioja; Andrew L Neal; Linda Tapsell; David R Jacobs
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2013-01-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  BioFactors (Oxford, England)     Volume:  39     ISSN:  1872-8081     ISO Abbreviation:  Biofactors     Publication Date:    2013 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-19     Completed Date:  2014-01-15     Revised Date:  2014-10-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8807441     Medline TA:  Biofactors     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  242-58     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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MeSH Terms
Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
Dietary Fiber*
Hypertension / epidemiology*
Prospective Studies
Risk Factors
Grant Support
BBS/E/C/00005206//Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; CA58420/CA/NCI NIH HHS; DK068738/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK068738/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R56 HL053560/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS

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