Document Detail

Whispering--a single-subject study of glottal configuration and aerodynamics.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19850445     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 m2; and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O])=C X F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A+0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis.
Johan Sundberg; Ronald Scherer; Markus Hess; Frank Müller
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2009-10-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1873-4588     ISO Abbreviation:  J Voice     Publication Date:  2010 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-30     Completed Date:  2010-12-20     Revised Date:  2013-05-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8712262     Medline TA:  J Voice     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  574-84     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Speech, Music & Hearing, School of Computer Science and Communications, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pressure
Fiber Optic Technology
Glottis / anatomy & histology,  physiology*
Loudness Perception
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Speech Acoustics*
Transducers, Pressure
Video Recording
Voice Quality*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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