Document Detail

What is a species? Essences and generation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20524078     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species have typical developmental cycles and most have a large shared genetic component. These are the "what-it-is-to-be" members of that species. An intrinsic biological essentialism does not commit us to Aristotelian notions, nor even modern notions, of essence. There is a long-standing definition of "species" and its precursor notions that goes back to the Greeks, and which Darwin and pretty well all biologists since him share, that I call the Generative Conception of Species. It relies on there being a shared generative power that makes progeny resemble parents. The "what-it-is-to-be" a member of that species is that developmental type, mistakes in development notwithstanding. Moreover, such "essences" have always been understood to include deviations from the type. Finally, I shall examine some implications of the collapse of the narrative about essences in biology.
John S Wilkins
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-06-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Theory in biosciences = Theorie in den Biowissenschaften     Volume:  129     ISSN:  1611-7530     ISO Abbreviation:  Theory Biosci.     Publication Date:  2010 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-07-02     Completed Date:  2011-01-28     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9708216     Medline TA:  Theory Biosci     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  141-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Philosophy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Biology / classification*
Genetic Phenomena / physiology
Species Specificity

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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