Document Detail

What distinguishes adipose tissue of severely obese humans who are insulin sensitive and resistant?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23298959     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite a strong correlation between obesity and insulin resistance, 25% of severely obese (BMI >40) individuals are insulin sensitive. In this review, we will examine the factors in adipose tissue that distinguish the two groups, as well as reasons for believing the insulin-sensitive group will be less disease prone.
RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity has been linked to the metabolic syndrome with an increase in visceral (intra-abdominal) compared to subcutaneous fat. Recent studies in which adipose tissue of insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients with severe obesity were compared indicate that the insulin-resistant group is also distinguished by increases in oxidative stress and decreases in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In contrast, changes in the expression of genes for SIRT1, inflammatory cytokines, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, and the two α-isoforms of AMPK showed more depot variation. Studies of how these and other changes in adipose tissue respond to bariatric surgery are still in their infancy.
SUMMARY: Available data suggest that increases in oxidative stress, decreases in AMPK activity and SIRT1 gene expression, depot-specific changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial and other genes distinguish adipose tissue of insulin resistant from insulin-sensitive individuals with severe obesity.
X Julia Xu; Walter J Pories; Lynis G Dohm; Neil B Ruderman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in lipidology     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1473-6535     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Lipidol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-09     Completed Date:  2013-06-18     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9010000     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Lipidol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  49-56     Citation Subset:  IM    
Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
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MeSH Terms
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / genetics,  metabolism*
Adipose Tissue / enzymology,  metabolism,  pathology*
Bariatric Surgery
Body Mass Index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism,  pathology
Enzyme Activation
Inflammation / pathology
Insulin / metabolism
Insulin Resistance*
Metabolic Syndrome X / metabolism,  pathology
Mitochondria / metabolism,  pathology
Obesity, Morbid / enzymology,  metabolism,  pathology*,  surgery
Oxidative Stress
Sirtuin 1 / genetics,  metabolism
Grant Support
1R24DK094749-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; 2R01DK019514-31/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK019514/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R24 DK094749/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Insulin; EC Protein Kinases; EC 3.5.1.-/SIRT1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.-/Sirtuin 1

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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