Document Detail

What a difference an X or Y makes: sex chromosomes, gene dose, and epigenetics in sexual differentiation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23027446     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A modern general theory of sex determination and sexual differentiation identifies the factors that cause sexual bias in gene networks, leading to sex differences in physiology and disease. The primary sex-biasing factors are those encoded on the sex chromosomes that are inherently different in the male and female zygotes. These factors, and downstream factors such as gonadal hormones, act directly on tissues to produce sex differences and antagonize each other to reduce sex differences. Recent studies of mouse models such as the four core genotypes have begun to distinguish between the direct effects of sex chromosome complement (XX vs. XY) and hormonal effects. Several lines of evidence implicate epigenetic processes in the control of sex differences, although a great deal of information is needed about sex differences in the epigenome.
Arthur P Arnold; Xuqi Chen; Yuichiro Itoh
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Handbook of experimental pharmacology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  0171-2004     ISO Abbreviation:  Handb Exp Pharmacol     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-02     Completed Date:  2013-01-10     Revised Date:  2014-09-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7902231     Medline TA:  Handb Exp Pharmacol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  67-88     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Epigenesis, Genetic*
Gene Dosage*
Sex Characteristics*
Sex Chromosomes*
Sex Determination Processes
Sex Differentiation
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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