Document Detail

What are the risks associated with formula feeding? A re-analysis and review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20879657     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Most infant feeding studies present infant formula use as 'standard' practice, supporting perceptions of formula feeding as normative and hindering translation of current research into counseling messages supportive of exclusive breastfeeding. To promote optimal counseling, and to challenge researchers to use exclusive breastfeeding as the standard, we have reviewed the scientific literature on exclusive breastfeeding and converted reported odds ratios to allow discussion of the 'risks' of any formula use. METHODS: Studies indexed in PubMed that investigated the association between exclusive breastfeeding and otitis media, asthma, types 1 and 2 diabetes, atopic dermatitis, and infant hospitalization secondary to lower respiratory tract diseases were reviewed. Findings were reconstructed with exclusive breastfeeding as the standard, and levels of signidicance calculated. RESULTS: When exclusive breastfeeding is set as the normative standard, the re-calculated odds ratios communicate the risks of any formula use. For example, any formula use in the first 6 months is significantly associated with increased incidence of otitis media (OR: 178, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.70 and OR: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.64, 12.50 in the available studies; pooled OR for any formula in the first 3 mo: 2.00, 95% CI: 140, 2.78). Only shorter durations of exclusive breastfeeding are available to use as standards for calculating the effect of 'any formula use' for type 1 diabetes, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and hospitalization secondary to lower respiratory tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding is an optimal practice, compared with which other infant feeding practices carry risks. Further studies on the influence of presenting exclusive breastfeeding as the standard in research studies and counseling messages are recommended.
Melinda E McNiel; Miriam H Labbok; Sheryl W Abrahams
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Breastfeeding review : professional publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0729-2759     ISO Abbreviation:  Breastfeed Rev     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-09-30     Completed Date:  2010-09-30     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9616903     Medline TA:  Breastfeed Rev     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  25-32     Citation Subset:  K    
University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Charlotte 28209, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding*
Chronic Disease
Infant Food / adverse effects*
Infant Formula / administration & dosage*
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Risk Assessment

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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