Document Detail

Warfarin-induced skin necrosis in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis and venous thrombosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20529438     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: At the turn of the century, only 300 cases of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) had been reported. WISN is a rare but potentially fatal complication of warfarin therapy. There are no published reports of WISN occurring in patients with HIV-1 infection or tuberculosis (TB).
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of WISN presenting from April 2005 to July 2008 at a referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
RESULTS: Six cases of WISN occurred in 973 patients receiving warfarin therapy for venous thrombosis (0.62%, 95% CI 0.25 - 1.37%). All 6 cases occurred in HIV-1-infected women (median age 30 years, range 27 - 42) with microbiologically confirmed TB and venous thrombosis. All were profoundly immunosuppressed (median CD4+ count at TB diagnosis 49 cells/microl, interquartile range 23 - 170). Of the 3 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, 2 had TB-IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). The median interval from initiation of antituberculosis treatment to venous thrombosis was 37 days (range 0 - 150). The median duration of parallel heparin and warfarin therapy was 2 days (range 1 - 6). WISN manifested 6 days (range 4 - 8) after initiation of warfarin therapy. The international normalised ratio (INR) at WISN onset was supra-therapeutic, median 6.2 (range 3.8 - 6.6). Sites of WISN included breasts, buttocks and thighs. Four of 6 WISN sites were secondarily infected with drug-resistant nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) 17 - 37 days after WISN onset. In 4 patients, the median interval from WISN onset to death was 43 days (range 25 - 45). One of the 2 patients who survived underwent bilateral mastectomies and extensive skin grafting at a specialist centre.
CONCLUSION: This is one of the largest case series of WISN. We report a novel clinical entity: WISN in HIV-1 infected patients with TB and venous thrombosis. The occurrence of 6 WISN cases in a 40-month period may be attributed to (i) hypercoagulability, secondary to HIV-1 and TB: (ii) short concurrent heparin and warfarin therapy; and (iii) high loading doses of warfarin. Active prevention and appropriate management of WISN are likely to improve the dire morbidity and mortality of this unusual condition.
F Bhaijee; H Wainwright; G Meintjes; R J Wilkinson; G Todd; E De Vries; D J Pepper
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2010-06-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde     Volume:  100     ISSN:  0256-9574     ISO Abbreviation:  S. Afr. Med. J.     Publication Date:  2010 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-06-10     Completed Date:  2010-09-14     Revised Date:  2014-09-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404520     Medline TA:  S Afr Med J     Country:  South Africa    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  372-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Anticoagulants / adverse effects*
HIV Infections / epidemiology*
Necrosis / chemically induced
Retrospective Studies
Skin / drug effects,  pathology*
Tuberculosis / epidemiology*
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology
Venous Thrombosis / epidemiology*
Warfarin / adverse effects*
Grant Support
072070//Wellcome Trust; 084323//Wellcome Trust; 088316//Wellcome Trust; 1U2RTW007373-01A1//PHS HHS; MC_U117588499//Medical Research Council; U117588499(88499)//Medical Research Council; //Wellcome Trust
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anticoagulants; 5Q7ZVV76EI/Warfarin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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